First discovered at Kharkov...


  ..."Thinking machines" had been constructed
  for the first time in Russia
As for history  of  logic machines c o n s t r u c t i n g  in Russia, it isn't investigated enough. It's known, however, that there were two constructors of similar devices. They were Pavel Dmitriyevich Khrushchov (1849-1909) and Alexsander Nikolayevich Shchukarev (1864-1936),  both spesialised in physical chemistry, and were interesting in the problems of logic and  methodology also.   The machine, which was costructed by Khrushchov about 1890-1900  and which reproduced clearly the Javons'es device, was keeping for a long time at Kharkov University, where its constructor worked as a privat-docent.

A.N.Shchukarev worked at Kharkov Polytechnical Institute since 1911; when he got acquainted with Khrushchov's machine he brought the constructive improvements in it. There is information on his report about this in 1912 at Kharkov Uinversity, and it's exactly known, that he demonstrated his variant of machine in Moscow Polytechnical Museum in 1914. The announcement under the title "Thinking machine" was typed in the newspaper "Russkie vedomosti" in 16.04.1914, there was told, that in 19th of april in Large Auditory of museum it'll take place the public lecture of professor A.N.Shchukarev named "Cognition and Thinking": "While this lecture the thinking machine will be demonstrated, the apparatus, which allows to reproduce mechanically  the human thinking process, that is to derive the conclusions from permissible  premises...The results of its operations will be put out to screen in text form".

In the next years Shchukarev demonstrated his machine also, in particular, in soviet time ( in the middle of 20-th). It is especially interesting that he supposed, differently from Javons, that similar logic devices can be used in practice.

B. Бирюков. Жар холодных числ и пафос бесстрастной логики. -М., Издательство "Знание", 1985.

(B.V. Biryukov. The Heat of Cold Numbers and Pathos of Impassive Logic.)




  ...the atomic nuclear had been split
  for the first time in the USSR
  In 22 October, 1932, the report in ''Pravda" had been published which announced: "Ukrainian Technical Physics Institute at Kharkov after urgent work dedicated to XV October Anniversary have achieved the first success in atomic nuclear splitting. In 10 October the high-voltage brigade have split lithium nuclear. The works are going on."

Scientific leaders of UTPI who realized the first atomic nuclear splitting in our country were K.D.Sinelnikov, A.K.Walter, A.I.Leypunsky and G.K.Latyshev.

At the end of October 2002 the 70th Anniversary of this event was celebrated and the ceremony of unveiling of monument dedicated to four nuclear physicists took place at UTPI territory.





  ... liquid hydrogen and helium had been produced
  for the first time in the USSR
Shortly after the splitting of atomic nuclear, also for the first time in the USSR, liquid hydrogen and helium had been produced at UTPI. L.V.Shubnikov, N.E.Alexeyevsky, V.I.Hotkevich, J.N.Ryabinin and G.D.Shepelev put the fundamental contribution in this matter.  




  ... alphabet for deaf and dumb and blind persons had been invented
  for the first time in the world




  ... enigmatic characters of ancient Indian Maya tribe had been interpreted
  for the first time in the world





  ... cordless system for duel supervising in fencing had been proposed
  for the first time in the world


  A new way of duel supervising in fencing sports has been developed by Kharkov's inventor Andrey Makarushchenko. It is based on the unique system of cordless communication which makes the sportsmen duel much more easy and distinguishes itself by great accuracy of duel representation. Strictly speaking, it was difficult for proposed invention to breach a lobbying wall of  firms that produce usual electrical communication means. But now the time of victorial celebration came: new system was implemented successfully in Madrid fencing competitions in autumn 2003 and a great future is waiting for it. Already at the Olympic Games 2004 the cordless supervising will be applied in sabre fencing competitions, and at the next Games 2008  - in sword and foil ones. Makarushchenko's system maybe forecasts the real revolution in fencing, becaise it gives to sportsmen the possibility to reject the linear duel strategy, which forbids to leave the special fencing strip. Probably a new duel geometry will be developed soon: for example, duels in the ring, arena duels, duels in the area with obstacles etc...


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