Kharkov Scientists

Grand of Geometry
L.V.Shubnikov 100th Anniversary
Dedicated to N.I.Akhiezer Centenary
A.I.Akhiezer 90th Anniversary

 Measuring, measuring, measuring...

  V.A.Marchenko 80th Anniversary
  Geneticians of Kharkov
  Creators of Magnetrons
  Requiem to Kharkov Physicists

  UTPI stellarator 'URAGAN'(80-s of XX century)

UTPI   Pleiad



Member of AS of the USSR I.V.Obreimov


Leo Vasilyevich Shubnikov

Member of AS of the USSR A.K.Walter

Member of AS of Ukraine C.D.Sinelnikov


Corr. member of AS of UkrSSR Vladimir I.Hotkevich


Nobel Prize laureate L.D.Landau


Reception of scientific delegation in Kharkov, May 1964


Member of AS of UkrSSR Abraham Alexandrovich Slutzkin


Member of AS of UkrSSR Simon Yakovlevich Braude


Lenin Prize laureate Ivan Dmitryevich Truten'


Single-reflector with netted paraboloid


Generator part of bireflector locator, created at UTPI in 1941


Generator and receiver on the netted paraboloid


Visiting of IRE AS YkrSSR Radio-astronomic Observatory by President of AS of UkrSSR B.E.Paton


Lenin Prize laureate Grigory Yacovlevich Levin


Member of AS of UkrSSR Alexandr Ilyich Akhiezer


Corr-member of AS of UkrSSR Evgeniy Stanislavovich Borovik


UTPI Cryogenic Laboratory collaborators A.I.Sudovtzov, E.S.Borovik, B.N.Eselson, A.A.Galkin. 1949


Member of AS of USSR and AS of UkrSSR Ilya Michailovich Lifshitz


Member of AS of UkrSSR Boris Gergyevich Lazarev 
                and kand.of Lyubov Samoylovna Lazareva

Ukrainian Technical Physics Institute (UTPI), which played the outstanding role in development of physical science in the USSR, had been organized at Kharkov in 1928 after personal proposal of Academician A.F.Ioffe. Addressing to Ukrainian Sovnarkom (Council of People Commissars) he wrote: "To my mind, such institute must have connections with industry... According this concept it would be expedient to arrange the institute at Kharkov, indeed".
  Leningrad Technical Physics Institute gave a greate help to organize the new scientific center, the whole group of its young talented collaborators was assigned for UTPI headed by  I.V.Obreimov as the first UTPI director.

From the early days of UTPI activity the research on atomic nuclear properties and mechanism of nuclear reactions had begun. In 22 October, 1932, the report in ''Pravda" had been published which announced: "Ukrainian Technical Physics Institute at Kharkov after urgent work dedicated to XV October Anniversary have achieved the first success in atomic nuclear splitting. In 10 October the high-voltage brigade have split lithium nuclear. The works are going on."

Scientific leaders of UTPI who realized the first atomic nuclear splitting in our country were K.D.Sinelnikov, A.K.Walter, A.I.Leypunsky and G.K.Latyshev.

Shortly after, also for the first time in the USSR, liquid hydrogen and helium had been produced at UTPI. L.V.Shubnikov, N.E.Alexeyevsky, V.I.Hotkevich, J.N.Ryabinin and G.D.Shepelev put the fundamental contribution in this matter.

  These two outstanding achievements in the field of experimental physics turned Kharkov into "double-capital of physical science of the Soviet Union". Kharkov became both the capital of nuclear physics and of nuclear energetics, and the capital of cold also - i.e. the capital of low temperature and of solid state physics.

Not at Moscow, and not at Leningrad, and not at any other center of the USSR science - these results had been obtained at Kharkov, at UTPI, at the very beginning of 30s of XX century. The international signficance of this achievements increased to a conciderable extent by theoretical works of L.D.Landau who  was at the head of UTPI Theoretical Department.

Kharkov - UTPI - had become the place of meeting and co-operation of institute collaborators with outstanding physicists of the world scale. In 1934-1935 the institute have been visited by Nilse Bor, Jolio-Cury, Perren and other scientific luminaries of that time.

At the beginning of 60s new, young and full of energy President of Ukrainian Academy of Science Boris Evgenyevich Paton decided, fisrt of all, to give the development level of science in Ukraine a proper appreciation. For this purpose he organized the visit in Ukraine of AS of the USSR scientific delegation headed by President M.V.Keldysh. Academicians  A.P.Vinogradov, S.V.Vonsovsky, B.P.Constantinov, J.A.Mitropolsky, A.A.Smirnov became the members of this delegation. In May 1964 delegation of scientists first visited Kharkov. They need to clear up the important question - how developed the brilliant traditions of physical science of 30s at UTPI?
  Passing by the severe and hard years, immediately after the Greate Patriotic War of 1941-1945 UTPI was just regenerated from ashes and began to develop swiftly the new fields of physical science. Turning back to the 30s, one more important result should be mentioned, which had been achieved at UTPI. Some years later after "double-capital" period there had been created, also for the first time in the USSR, (under direction of A.A.Slutzkin and with participation of D.I.Truten', S.J.Braude, A.J.Usikov) the three-coordinate radiolocator with decimetre wavelength, which gave the possibility "to see" flying aeroplane, to determine all three its coordinates from the 50 km distance. The single antenna version of this radiolocator with netted paraboloid which had been created in 1942 at Uzbekistan (Buchara) then used during the Greate Patriotic War in operations at North Front, near Murmansk.  
  During 50s UTPI, renamed as PTI of AS of UkrSSR, appeared as ancestor of two new physical institutes at Kharkov: Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics (IRE) of AS of UkrSSR was organized in 1955, and Institute of Low Temperature Physics & Engineering  (ILTPE) of AS of UkrSSR was organized in 1960.   
Scientific tendencies, themes and results of woks at these institutes were learned by the scientific delegation, and President Keldysh said at final meeting: "All three physical institutes of AS of UkrSSR at Kharkov are institutes of the most high international class. At each of them several results have been achieved exceeding the world level in corresponding fields of modern science." So the above question have got such answer: UTPI achievements tradition of 30s by means of physical sciences development have been continued successfully at Kharkov physical institutes in the middle of 60s.
70s, 80s, 90s... These years brought to UTPI (to Kharkov Technical Physics Institute now) the new discoveries and achievements. It's enough to mention the basic research directions of Plazm Physics Department of this institute: stellarators - "URAGAN (STORM)" program, "PUCHOK (PENCIL OF RAYS)" program (plazm electronics, new acceleration methods), "JUPITER" program (elecromagnetic retention of plazm),  "BULAT (UNUSUALLY FIRM STEEL)" program as "the child" of thermo-nuclear research. At the same time Kharkov scientists don't hide the deep anxiety on the future of fundamental nuclear physics both in Ukraine and in the world. Crysis of nuclear physics research, which had began in the Soviet Union yet in 70s, was provoked by leg in creation of power accelerators. After gaining of independence Ukraine have got a great number of nuclear weapon and reactors, although all necessery for its creation and finctioning scientific and technical means lost in Russia. If  the weapon could be handed over to another countries, then what must be done with reactors? So without another countries aid Ukraine couldn't have managed. And the euipment of Ukrainian research institutes being engaged in fundamental nuclear physics is hopelessly out of date now. Every new spiral in nuclear research needs in essential increase of expenses, sometimes it's beyond the country powers even in case of its developed, mighty economics. Alas, Ukraine can't boast of this for the present. At the same time there is obvious necessity to keep the research groups till better times in spite of all troubles. The hope for such keeping is stated by leading physicists of Kharkov.  
"Beauty is multisemantic", said Jordano Bruno. One of its the most high and exciting meanings is in the verily mined by science, i.e. in the beaty overtaken by mind. The development of physics at Kharkov is a way of verily cognition by means of professonal energies combined with high moral of physicists. Tendence of this cognition continues till nowadays and is based on human's merit in his act of thinking; Bles Pascal said about that with such feeling: "In Space the Universe envelopes and absorbs me as a point; in thought I envelope It".


In this page some materials of  Photo Album published by Academician A.J.Usikov and notes of Prof.J.M.Ranyuk were used.  
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