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Kharkov Panorama(Architectural Symbols)
Kharkov - one of the Ukrainian region centres, rightfully carrying the title of a Ukrainian megalopolis - is a giant of the national industry, a big educational and cultural centre, and the biggest transport node of the Country of Ukraine.
The town is situated in the north-eastern part of Ukraine, on the border of two landscape belts - forest-steppe and steppe, near the junction of the Lopan and the Udy rivers, that flow into the Seversky Donets.
The territory of the town is a slightly rolling plane, grooved with river beds, clefts and valleys. The town sits on five hills and five vales. Its height above the sea level is between 90 and 192 m. Most of the town territory is 105 to 192 m. above the sea level.
Kharkov is situated a long way away from oceans, however the sea air is often brought here with westerly and south westerly winds, which makes its climate temperate continental, with prolonged but not severe winter, which have characteristic frequent thaws. The summer is warm, sometimes hot.
According to the Kharkov meteorological service data collected over many years:
               the average yearly t is 6.9C;
               the coldest months are January (-7.1C) and February (-6.7C);
               the hottest months are July (20.5C) and August (19.4C);
               the yearly average month t variation is 27.6C;
               the average yearly precipitation level - 522 mm;
               the highest precipitation level is in June (69 mm);
               the lowest level is in February (22 mm);
               the number of days with precipitation - 146;
               the maximum of days with precipitation is in December and January (16);
               the minimum is in September.
The Kharkov population level is second largest in Ukraine, and is now close to 1.5 millions. In Big Kharkov (that is together with its suburbs) now live 2/3 of the Kharkov region population and more than 4/5 of its town population.
The huge level of housing and industrial construction, the increase of Kharkov population caused by its swift development as an industrial and cultural centre during the Soviet period have led to a considerable extension of the town borders. At present the town takes up 303 square km., which is 5 times that of its territory before the 1917 revolution. In spite of its considerable size, the town's layout is tight. Well developed town transport network (underground, tram, trolley bus, bus, shuttle taxi) makes easily accessible any part of the town.
As to the division of labour in Ukraine, Kharkov is characterised by a high level of mechanical engineering and metal working industries. Among others high-tech based industries can be singled out as spurring further scientific progress: tractor and agricultural mechanical engineering, space technologies and aviation construction, machine tool construction, heavy engineering industry, power machinery construction. There are also big businesses engaged in light industry, food production, chemical industry. Building is highly developed as well.
Kharkov is a big (if not the biggest) centre of science and culture in Ukraine. There are more than 60 scientific research institutes, more than 170 secondary education schools, more than 150 educational centres and special secondary education schools, the number of private and state owned higher education institutions has now reached 80. About 20,000 students graduate yearly from Kharkov higher education institutions. There are 49 cultural centres and institutions, among them 5 museums, a town art gallery, six major theatres. There are more than 80 libraries in the town! These figures justify the opinion "Kharkov is intellect" voiced recently by Konstantin Kevorkian, a popular TV presenter and journalist, the author of the TV series "The First Capital" dedicated to Kharkov and of the book with the same title.
An outstanding feature of Kharkov as an industrial giant is that among other similar towns it is one of the greenest. The green ranges of its parks and gardens, alleys and park areas are spread over 12 628 hectares. There are over 17 square metres of green area per citizen.
The town is divided into nine administrative units - districts: Dzerzhinsky, Kiyevsky, Kominternovsky, Leninsky, Moskovsky, Oktyabrsky, Ordzhonikidzevsky, Frunzensky, Chervonozavodsky.
Kharkov is a town of great traditions, a town with remarkable destiny (and during certain periods with tragic one), a town that is proud for its past. A great impression on the character and habit of mind of the town was made by the period between 1917 - 1934 when the town was the capital of Soviet Ukraine. This may be a subject of animated and fascinating story told by local lore specialists. To begin with the fact that "The Igor Regiment" is directly connected with Kharkovians. Because the legendary battle of the Calca river took place near Izyum. Further on, Kharkov has ever been a breeding ground for training military staff. It became the subject matter of the interesting book entitled "Kharkov regiments - 300 years of history". For more than 100 years now, Kharkov has been the law capital of Ukraine. It was here that the great achievements of national criminology were made. The lives of many well known writers, artists and actors, thinkers Vernadsky and Scovoroda are connected with Kharkov. You will also find on the pages of our web-site rather interesting stories about the town history and its famous inhabitants. The way there lies through Kharkov Region  rubric.
And all to be concerned with the present period of its history is gathered in the references at the top of this page.
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