|There is a brief essay on development of light and heavy industry in Kharkov. The address and phone lists of Kharkov plants and industrial establishments can be found by references (everywhere, as it's possible, the additional information is showed; usually it's the site referense (url), simetimes - the additional page reference). The section "Made in Kharkov " has been projected as the stories about the outstanding achievements of kharkovians in construction and technics.|
|After the abolition of serfdom, Russia began developing capitalism. Kharkiv was transforming into a major industrial centre of mechanical engineering and steel processing. In 1899, two hundred and fifty nine plants and factories were operating in the town, among them fifty nine engineering and steel processing works with 11 608 employees.|
|The construction of the railway played an important role in the industrial development of Kharkiv. In 1869, a railway connection was established was Moscow, Petersburg and Rostov, and with the opening of Kharkiv-Sevastopol, Kharkiv-Nikolayev, and South-west (Balashovskaya) railways Kharkiv became one of the major railway junctions of Russia. At the turn of XX century, Kharkiv continues to grow as a large industrial and railway centre of the South of Russia. In 1917, the number of mechanical engineering and steel processing works exceeded 150, and the number of their employees increased to 35 000. Offices of the biggest syndicates in Russia such as "Prodamet" and "Produgol" were opened in the town. Also there were held conferences of businessmen involved in mining industry.|
|After the establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, there followed a period of several years that were spent on fighting with Austrian-German occupation, on the Civil War, but after that there began a period of rapid economic development in Kharkiv which was declared the capital of Ukraine in the year of 1919. At the end of 1925, all industrial establishments in the town were restored, their share in the aggregate product of Ukrainian Republic was 20%. Since 1926, there began the updating process of Kharkiv plants and factories, that led to an increase of their labour productivity by 1.5 - 2 times against the prewar period, and the Miner's Light plant was producing 35 times as much as the amount in 1913. At the same time, Kharkovites selflessly worked away building new plants. On 1st October 1931, one of the giants of the Soviet heavy industry - the Kharkiv tractor plant released from its assembly line its first tractor. In three years, a turbo generator (currently turbo engine) plant named after S. M. Kirov was started up. Machine tool plant, surveyor tool plant, crane equipment plant, sanitary engineering equipment plant, tractor spare parts plant, "The Piston" plant, "The Hydromechanics" plant, and various other plants were built as well. In 1940, 1200 businesses were operating with 300 000 workers employed, their aggregate output 12 times as high as the level in year of 1913. At that time, Kharkiv plants produced 40% of mechanical engineering products in Ukraine and 6% in relation to the whole of Soviet Union. Intensive development of Kharkiv as a railway junction continued accompanied by introduction of up to date equipment.|
|The peaceful and creative flow of life of Kharkovites was broken by the Second World War. The work in the town was quickly reorganised to serve the needs of the war. Mass production of tanks, aeroplanes, guns, mortars, ammunition, military equipment began at that time, and this was despite the fact that 100 000 men left the town to fight as volunteers at the front and 85 000 joined militia regiments. Difficult fate befell Kharkiv: after sustained battles, the Soviet armies were forced to surrender Kharkiv on 24th October 1941 and the black period of Nazi occupation began. Many things can be added to it, but this subject deserves a separate talk (see Kharkiv during war-time). It is worth to point out now that the first international military tribunal was held not in Nuremberg, it was held in Kharkiv in 1943, after the liberation of the town, and the evidence was collected here at the scene of the crime.|
|The invaders almost completely destroyed 500 industrial establishments, first of all mechanical engineers giants (the tractor plant, the electric machine plant, the turbo engine plant, the machine tool plant, "Sickle And Hammer" plant), they reduced to rubble the railway junction, telegraph and telephone connection, power stations, housing services, medical institutions, 1 600 000 sq. metres of housing space. But immediately after the liberation of Kharkiv, intensive efforts were made at its restoration, and the rest of the country helped the town: equipment, building materials, provisions, manpower were sent in. In 1945, as much as 600 industrial establishments were operating in the town, in 1948, the industrial output reached the pre-war level, in 1956, the industrial output was four times as high as in 1940. Kharkiv restored its fame of the major mechanical engineering centre in Ukraine, locomotives, aeroplanes, tractors, turbines, metal cutting machines, mining and chemical equipment, automation instruments, light and food manufacturing industry equipment.|
|In 1980, 60 industrial corporations were operating in Kharkiv, and most important among them were the tractor construction corporation, "Electrotyazhmach", "Sickle And Hammer" motor corporation, the mechanical engineering corporation, the aviation corporation, the multihead machines corporation. The powerful Kharkiv made tractors paved the way to the South Pole, jet airliners were used on international flights, numerically controlled metal cutting machines, engines, electrical equipment, automation and communication instruments, bicycles, TV-sets, cameras, were shipped to farthest corners of the USSR and exported to 60 countries of the world.|
|Kharkiv was first established as a military settlement, but soon became a busy trading centre.|
|Since the beginning of the XVIIIth century, four fairs were
held in Kharkiv annually: Uspenskaya, Kreshenskaya, Pokrovskaya, and Troitskaya. They drew
their names from the religious festivals which they were contemporized with. Thus, every
season of the year had a fair of its own in Kharkiv. Artisans and all-rounders that were
attracted by the fairs thronged to this town from far and wide and settled in the busy
place thus starting off the development of light industry in Kharkiv.
In XVIIIth century here emerged professional guilds of the town artisans united in their respective shops. Weavers, cobblers (shoemakers) coppersmiths, blacksmiths, saddlers, glasscutters, woolen wares makers, coopers, potters, tailors, tar producers, fleece munufacturers, carpenters, oilers, distillers, maltsters, who produced malt for making beer, carpetmakers, who wove special carpets - all had their own shops. The names of the town streets (Rymarskaya, Kotsarskaya, Kuznechnaya, Degtyarnaya) and even the name of one town district (Goncharovka) now remind us of these noble trades. In XIXth century, shops were replaced by factories and manufactories. In 1896 Kharkiv entered a period of "sweet life": the confectionery started functioning. The beginning of the XXth was signalized by the opening of the Derjavinskaya hosiery, a clothes making manufacture.
During the Soviet period Kharkiv becomes one of the leading light industry towns in Ukraine, among the businesses functioning here are the "Krasnaya neet" cloth-factory, wool, stockinet and cotton fabric preprocessing factories, the named after 35 years of octrober revolution textile factory, the clothes factory named after E. D. Tinyakov, the "Bolshevic" tannery - one of the largest tanneries in Ukraine. The food industry is represented by a bacon factory, a dairy plant, eight bakeries, a confectionery concern.
After World War II here was created a powerful building industry, 10 armoured concrete producing plants were opened, 5 brickyards, a ceramic tiles (the biggest in the country) and a ceramics plants, a silicate producing plant, a breeze block plant, a roofing plant, a concrete plant, an alabaster producing plant, a plaster of Paris plant, a sealing material plant, etc.
A special position in Kharkiv light industry is held by the medical oriented enterprises: the "Zdorovye" pharmaceutical concern, endocrine manufacture, biological preparation manufacture.
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