Kharkov Mechnikov Institute  

Логотип ?нституту Мечн?кова


Kharkov research institute of microbiology and immunology named after I. I. Mechnikov is one of the oldest in the world research establishments in the field of anti-epidemic studies.

In August 1886, the Kharkov Medical Society took the decision to establish a Pasteur vaccination institute and a bacteriological station that were open on 20 April 1887. The first directors were appointed U. U. Motte and N. A. Protopopov.

The institute's formation and growth was going on in conditions of struggling with epidemics of formidable infectious diseases. The founders of native microbiology, epidemiology, vaccine serum production were prominent scientists V. K. Vysokovich, S. I. Zlatogorov, V. I. Nedrigaylov; S. V. Korshun, S. M. Kotsevalov, active members of Soviet Medical Sciences Academy M. M. Tsekhnovitser, M. N. Solovyov, V. M. Zhdanov, associate member of Soviet Medical Sciences Academy V. S. Derkach, and many other prominent microbiologists, epidemiologists, general pathology experts were at various times administering or co-operating in the institute.

In spite of critical epidemiological condition in the country during the first years of Soviet power  theoretical research was conducted in the institute to develop methods to fight cholera, dysentery, spotted and typhoid fever, to prevent and cure especially dangerous infectious diseases. To lower the levels TB morbidity a number of measures, both social and medical, had to be carried out. Research on TB was conducted in the institute since 1921;   tuberculin production was organised, and for the first time in the country's history anti-tuberculosis vaccine production was set up to immunise children, regular anti-tuberculosis vaccination was initiated.

Diphtheric and scarlet fever infections were researched here since the day of the institute's foundation, since 1925 special emphasis was placed on anaerobe infection research botulism, tetanus, anaerobe gangrene. Since after the war the production of 12 types of sera and 10 types of vaccines was started.  From 1931 to 1941 the All-Ukrainian Mechnikov Institute of bacteriology, epidemiology, and serum-therapy - this was the name of the institute at that time - concentrates its efforts on anti-epidemic research in Donbass,   developing active immunisation vaccines (enteric, scarlet fever); bacteriophage, bacterial antiagents chemistry studies, complex vaccine development. At this time the amount vaccine and serum preparations was greatly   increased - in 1940 their list comprised 37 items.

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НД? ?м.Мечн?кова

(побудований за проектом  О.Н.Бекетова)

Since the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War the institute's activities were completely dedicated to the needs  of the war. The production of tetanus sera, anti-gangrene preparations, vaccines against typhoid fever and cholera. The records of 1942 say:  110 000 wounded people were vaccinated against anaerobe gangrene, more than 1 120 000 soldiers were injected with serum against tetanus made in the institute.   The institute's staff was repeatedly praised by high command for uninterrupted supply of vaccine and serum preparations.

Immediately after the end of the war  a new and promising course of action was taken in the institute - the development of anti- microbe remedies and preventative medicines, the antibiotic sanasin and antitumor preparation neocid were developed. On the regained territory scientists organise and administer anti-epidemic campaign, fighting mass diseases  typhoid fever and parasitogenic disease, dysentery, diphtheria.

At present  the main direction of the institute's policy is the development of new methods of diagnostics, treatment, and preventative measures against infectious diseases. New anti-microbe preparations were developed here, thoroughly researched, and put into practice: Ectericid, Chlorophilipt, Decametoxin, diagnostic preparation Lecitovitellin. A new, the world's unrivalled anatoxin of blue-purulent bacillus for treating patients was designed, as well as hyperimmune antitoxicant plasma based on blue-purulent bacillus - the preparation that was pit forward and is being successfully used since then.

New scientific projects are being actively applied in medical practice, and pay considerable social and medical dividends. The institute established co-operation links with 30 higher education institutions and research institutes, sanitary epidemic organisations of the country, with many hospitals. The institute is the republics centre of meningococcus infection research. The institute is extending its research in the field of clinical microbiology, new methods and ways of treating hospital born infections and sepsis, coronary, rotary and hyper viral diseases, listerios are being developed.

Following the accident in Chernobyl the institute  intensified its activities   on the territories of Zhitomir and Rovno regions, commissioned by the Supreme Council of Ukraine the institute developed radiation defence of the population conception. The research data in the fields of radio-biology, the long term and the short term methods of fighting infectious diseases in conditions of ecological and economic crisis are summarised in papers "Allergy and Ecology", "AIDS infection. Hypotheses and Facts", "Adaptation Syndrome and Immunity", "Mathematical Modelling in Developing New Anti-microbe Preparations",  "Optimal Disease Principle", "Medical and Social Consequences of Nuclear Disaster", "Self- regulation in Microbiocenoses and New Approaches to Prevention of Meningococcus Infection", Viral Hepatite and HIV Infection" published between 1995 and 1997. In the period between 1987 and 1997 alone, the scientists of the institute prepared and published 15 papers, 28 methodological references and information letters.

After the accident at the Dikanyovsky sewage processing site (1995) and during the period of fixing the consequences the institute co- ordinated anti-epidemic activities in Kharkov, Donetsk, and Lugansk regions.

The institute has a Council on defending theses on the subject "Microbiology", since the creation of independent Ukraine the scientists of the institute defended 3 Doctor of Science and 16 candidate of science theses, at present the research is being carried out for 12 Doctor of Science and 26 candidate of science theses on microbiology, virology, epidemiology, and immunology.

3 Academics, 8 Doctors of Science, and 36 candidates of science work in the institute. Since 1924 the chair of microbiology functions as part of the institute, and since 1986 - the chair of clinical microbiology and immunology of Kharkov institute for doctor proficiency improvement.

After anniversary edition, Kharkov - 1997


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