|Kharkov in XVII—XVIII centuries
An Essay After A Historical Research work
The Process of Russianization After The Abolition Of
Dmitry Ivanovich Bagaliy
Ukrainian National Renaissance in Kharkov in XIX century
lifestyle used to be seen not only in villages, as it is now, but also in towns, cities,
where it is very scarce at present. We can see it even in as central a town as Kharkov,
whose population at present is so much Russified that most of it probably isn't aware that
sometimes Kharkov used to be a completely Ukrainian town, and later, when it was
Russianized, a part of its Ukrainian inteligentsia, feeling close affinity to the people,
was working for the renaissance of it's people and has carefully carried this desire until
present days — to this great Ukrainian movement which not only started but also
continues to implement both national and political revival of the whole Ukraine and with
it Kharkov and Sobozhan region."
||D. I. Bagaliy. The History of Slobod Ukraine,
||Kharkov, "Delta", 1999.
||A facsimile publication: PUBLISHING HOUSE "SOYUZ"
Kharkov Cooperative Credit Union, 1918, "The Library of Culture and History"
Kharkov in XVII — XVIII centuries
established in 1654, at the same time when Bogdan Khmelnitsky and the whole of Ukraine
came under Moscow's "protection". The town was established by a party of
Ukrainian settlers with their leader — the settlement chief Ivan Karkach. Let memory of
Ivan Karkach will remain forever in Kharkov together with reminiscence of the first
Kharkov Cossac ataman Ivan Krivoshlyk. Although I.
Karkach as the first Kharkov osadchy is mentioned only
in later dated sources (latter half of the XVIII century), however we can dismiss them and dismiss Karkach together
with them, because there was no reason to invent him at that time: it is obvious that this
name has continued to live in people's memory, and besides that the earlier sources
testify to the existance of the name Karkach among the inhabitants of Kharkov; it can,
however, be found today as well.
Ukrainian settlers from Transdnieper region came to a wild field and settled where the
Kharkov flows into the Lopan — within Kharkov enclosure, on the location where in the
past (in Pre-Mongolian era, i.e. in XII century) probably used to be located an ancient
Russian Ukrainian town - at present it is Kharkov's "University Hill" with a
temple and the old University building. Here, in 1656, Kharkovians constructed an earth
embankment and a wooden fence around the enclosure and made it, as we now know, after
their own Ukrainian fashion in order to defend themselves from Tatarians, however this
fence was not approved by the Moscow warcommander who demanded that the fortification be
made after Moscovian fashion.
In this way from the beginning the
two powers - Ukrainian and Great Russian - came on the scene in cultural sphere as well.
However, as to its population we can safely say that Kharkov was a purely Ukrainian town,
because a great number of Ukrainians came here at once — 587 male Cossacs, which
together with women and children could probably be estimated about 2000. They formed a
Cossacs union divided into squadrons and tens with the ataman and squadron and ten
D. I. Bagaliy was lucky to find in the archives and printed a list these Kharkovians —
which shows that they were Ukrainians — Ivanenko, Timoshenko, Yefimenko, Gordiyenko,
Oleksiyenko, Melnyk (Miller), Kolesnyk (Wheelwright), Koval (Smith), Kushnir (Furrier),
Kotlyar (Boiler-maker), Shvets (Sewer), Tkach (Weaver), Kravets (Tailor). We can see among
them Zhuravl(Crane), Dudka (Pipe), Strikha (Eaves), Lomaka (Poseur), Teterya(Blackcock),
Syroyizhka (Russula), Horobets (Sparrow) and so on. There was one Tykhy (Calm), one Durny
(Stupid), one Kryvy (One-eyed), one Nedbayenko. A Kremenchutsky (probably from
Kremenchug), a Voloshenin (probably from Voloshchyna), Moskal (from Moscovia). We can also
see Yakov - Sharko's son in law: apparently Sharko himself was a more noticable figure
than his son in law Yakov who got his surname from his father in law.
||This was the main group of settlers,
and then other groups began to join it. As we know, mostly people were coming from the Right Shore Ukraine, especially during the
hard times of the Ruin, people were coming from
Hetmanshchina, from other areas of Slobod Ukraine, as Kharkov attracted people being a
military and business town. The central Moscow government had here its Russian officials
as well, however they were not as numerous compared to Ukrainian population.
In 1665, Kharkov male population
was 2282 (1290 middle-class citizens and 992 grain-growers), and 133 Russians (children of
the nobility and other officials).
In 1668, Ukrainian male population was 1491, 75 Russians (military officers and
officials). (This figure probably shows the number of Cossacs and military staff not
counting children and relatives.)
In 1670, there was an increase of Russian population in Kharkov, because there remained
Russian military staff to defend the town from Tatarians. There was at that time 2101
strong male Ukrainian population, 415 strong male Russian population.
In 1673, there were 1276 Ukrainian males, 118 Russians; they were all children of the
nobility in municipal service, and there were no more Russians in military service.
In 1675, the number of Russian military staff had considerably risen again (6 times as
much): now there were 625 of them.
In 1686, there were 571 Russians against 1937 Ukrainians.
|It follows that Russian population
in Kharkov was transitory one. Ukrainians themselves had settled in Kharkov for good,
whereas Russian military and governmental officials were occasionally sent there by the
Moscovian government not of their own accord and their will, not for settlement, but for
defence. So the true and permanent settlers in Kharkov were Ukrainians, who built
themselves houses, established their living, ploughed up the land, developed crafts
business and trade. As to the social structure of Kharkov population in XVII century, it
then consisted of a) Cossacs in military service, b) middle class citizens and c)
manufactury workers. The highest authority in Kharkov was the military officers' board.
The Russian population was administered by the military commander - voivode, a separate
administration body governed the middle class citizens, and the manufactury workers were
administered by elected supervisors.
In XVIII century,
in its second quarter, Kharkov was a purely Ukrainian town. From Khrushchev's census of
1732 we find out that the proportion of Ukrainians against Russians increased in
comparison with XVII century. Kharkovians' surnames
are purely Ukrainian, and if N.V.Gogol had known them, he would not have to invent his
Ukrainian characters' surnames: we can see there Kvitka (Flower), and Horlytsia (Pigeon),
and Nezovybatko (Don't-call-father), and Bohomaz (Icon-painter), and Lupycobyla
(Thrash-the-mare), and Lupycobylenko, and Sukhorebryk (Dry-rib), and Nederycut
(Don't-strip-the-corner), and Kadyhrobenko (Burn-incense-over-coffin), and Otchenashko
(The-Lord's-prayer), and Kusvovk (Bite-the-wolf) , and Shtanko (Breeches), and Patsyuk
(Rat), and Varenyk (a kind of farinaceous foods).
It is interesting to know the structure of Kharkov population in 1732 from social and
national point of view. The most numerous part of Kharkov's population were Cossacks:
there were 775 elected Cossacks, their assistants 1531, Cossack followers 85; head
Cossacks and workers 71, guild
craftsmen 492, subjects, laymen and workers 205, clergymen and deacons 170; Russians 235,
Greeks and other foreigners 21; total of 3595 people.
So the most numeorus were Cossack assistants,
they are followed by elected Cossacks, and then guild craftsmen. Which means that from
social perspective Kharkov was the same Cossacks Ukrainian town like other towns in Slobod
Ukraine. The only difference was that here lived many craftsmen,
something that we don't see in other towns. Kharkov middle class citizens in the beginning
of XVIII century, as far as we know, were considered as Cossacks and appointed under the
authority of the military administration.
Kharkov Cossacks were divided into two units
called squadrons. The elected Cossacks were more well of than their assistants. The
elected Cossacks had more servants who lived in their families. For every household of an
elected Cossack there were total of 5 males, and if we count servants and helpers it would
total to 5, 7 people per household. So we can see that those were very large families,
whereas we have been accustomed to thinking that Ukrainian families were usually small.
Sometimes one family occupied one house, more often however it would occupy several houses
situated within the same courtyard.
Still, sometimes there were small households: there were as many as 14 one person
households. 60 households with servants and helpers had 3-4 people per household. It is
interesting to note that there were Cossack widows that probably hired workers to be
engaged in military service. 20% of households had non-relatives living with them in their
families. Cossack assistants had the total of 6 males per household. Only 12
assistants' houses were located not in the town but in the suburbs, and 21 families lived
in other people's households, which belonged to Cossack leader or widows.
||Among the people who belonged to the
Cossack administration body were Kharkov regiment commander Grygory Semenovych Kvitka,
martial judge Roman Grygorovych Kvitka, regiment cornet Rybasenko, commander of the First
squadron Grygory Vasylyovych Kovalevsky and commander of the Second squadron - Yak.
Khv. Denysevych. Others had their own households as well: commander of a squadron in Valky
and then colonel Iv. Gr. Kvitka, colonel Kulikovsky's widow, regiment secretary, two
regiment chancellery secretaries, 5 town hall secretaries and 1 customs secretary. This
was a small number of Cossack leaders that later turned into nobility.
Guild craftsmen belonged to the following trades: weavers, tailors,
boiler-makers, blacksmiths, butchers, rymars, musicians,
glaziers, cap-makers, coopers, potters, tailors, tar-makers, furriers, cabinetmakers,
oil-millers, wine makers, malters, kotzars (men and
women). It is interesting to note that musicians belonged to guild craftsmen as well, for
they played on weddings and actually earned their living by their trade. The present
Rymarskaya and Kotsarskaya streets got their names from rymars and kotzars. All
manufactury workers had their own courtyards and houses, except for 5 people, who lived in
colonel Kvitka's household. Manufactury workers had even less numerous families, than
Cossac assistants, they had little more than 3 people per household. However, they had
servants and helpers up to 2 people per family. This means that the craftsmen had much
more hired workers than Cossacs or assistants, as every craftsman wanted to have a hired
There were 116 clergymen and workers. There were
at that time 9 churches in Kharkov and in every church there were usually 2 clergymen, and
in the composite parish there were 2 protopops. In the
monastery there were 13 monastery workers. Clergymen lived in church houses built near the
churches. Moreover some priests had in addition to that their own households where lived
their servants and workers. As we know, there were church schools where teachers deacons
lived. There were 19 such teachers at that time in Kharkov. There were also church
hospitals. In Kharkov Collegium lived the pupils of the Latin
The subjects lived in 29 houses situated in 22 house yards. They lived in the suburbs
in small hamlets: the hamlets of colonel Kvitka, ensign Chernyak, Cossack Kovalenko, land
militia colonel Dunin, colonel Kulikovsky, squadron commander Mikhailov, Kharkov squadron
commander Kovalevsky, Kharkov store proprietress Nazarenkova, Kharkov Pokrovsky monastery,
the Trinity priest, Kharkov mayor Golukhovich; near this hamlet there was a mill on the
Kharkov river, the mill was the residence of the miller and his family. There were another
2 mills with millers on the Kharkov river.
A special position in Kharkov had Russians and
foreigners. They were divided into several categories.
|A number of Russian people even
belonged to the Cossacks. They were ex military staff that joined the Cossacks when in
1700, in Kharkov was canceled the post of voivode; they were not numerous — 13
households. Still there were merchants that had the right to reside in Kharkov with a
certificate and were engaged in business and trade. They came from various Russian towns
— Kursk, Vereya, Belgorod, Chuguev, Tula, Yelts, Venyov. There were besides that
military staff — "abshytovany" (?This term have to be amplified.
Author of site) captain, lieutenants and others; almost all of them had their own
buildings in Kharkov. There were also military men from Moscow that previously joined the
Cossacks and in 1731 they were ranked among ordinary subjects and converted to land
There were 21 Greeks and other
nationals, including one baptized African and a Polish widow, and there were no Hebrews at
all. There were two Greeks — Kostyantynov and Chelenbi, who were merchants; one of them
had an employee of Tartarian nationality.
Although Kharkov was then just the same military
town like Sumy, Okhtyrka, Izyum, Ostrohozk and did no had the importance of an
administrative center of the whole of Slobod Ukraine, however, taking into account the
size and social structure of its population it was different from those towns and had an
advantage over them. It was a Ukrainian Cossacks town, but the size of its Russian
population was incomparable to that in other military towns.
||At that time there was Russian
merchant population in Kharkov that later increased considerably. These were the first
signs of changes in the look of Kharkov that happened later. In 1732, it was a Ukrainian
town in its national and social structure. More than 90 % of its population were
Ukrainians. The Cossacks proportion was the most numerous. Cossacks were the owners of the
majority of town estates and houses. They were followed by Ukrainian craftsmen — it was
a stable social stratum, that was engaged in a trade which was in high demand. Craftsmen
resided in their own houses as well. Both Cossacks and guild craftsmen settled in Kharkov
proper, and even in the central part of it, rather than in the suburbs.
It is interesting to note that even the streets at that time got their
names from these common Cossacks and craftsmen. Not to mention such streets as Rymarska,
Chobotarska (Shoemaker Street), Kotsarska, Kuznechna (Blacksmith Street) - they were
titled after their corresponding crafts -, we can see such names of Kharkov streets in
1724 in the Composite parish: Colonel Kvitka Street in castle, Judge (Kvitka) Street,
Sotnitska street (Commander's of a hundred-squadron Street), Besidyna street (Besidyn's
residence), Mikhail Drykha street (residence of Mikhail Drykha), Sushkova street
(residence of Sushchyha), Maks. Pysar street (residence of M. Pysar), Sem. Bogodukhovsky
street (residence of Sem. Bogodukhovsky), Synytsky street (residence of Synytsky),
Yenoshchyna street (residence of Yenokha), Borysenkova street (residence of cannoneer
Borysenko), Pistunova street (residence of Pistun), Hrebenykova street (residence of
Hrebenyk), Kulykivka street (residence of Kulyk), Chaychyna street (residence of Chayka)
along the hollow; total of 20 streets in the center.
|There were 6 streets in Mykolayiv
parish: Shapovalova street along the hollow (residence of Shapoval), Karabutova street
(residence of Karabut), Bybykova street (residence of Bybyk), Shemetova street,
Kaleberdyna street (residence of Kaleberda).
Two streets in Voznesensky parish —
Shapranivska street (residence of Shapran), Chugayivska street (residence of Chugay).
One in Pokrovsky monastery parish Pyshchalchyna street (residence of Pyshchalko).
In Rozhdestvensky parish — 5
streets: Moskalivka, Shylova street (residence of Shylo), Probyta street, Dovgalivka
street, Bezsalivka street.
6 streets in Troyitsky parish: Nazartseva street (residence of Nazarets), Klymenkova
street (residence of Klymenko), Hunchenkova street (residence of Hunka), Master Sizion
street (residence of Sizion), Yurchenkova street (residence of Yurkevich).
In Mykhaylivsky parish — 4 streets: Kulynychyna street (residence of Kulynych),
Korsunovska street, Zolotareva street (residence of Zolotarenko), Vereshchakivska street.
8 streets in Voskresensky parish — Dekhtyareva street, Kotlyarova street (residence
of Kotlyar), Mylnykova street (residence of Mylnychka), Onopriyeva street (residence of
Onopriy Riznyk), To Merkul street (residence of Merkul), Sklyareva street (residence of
Sklyar), Krokhmaleva street (residence of Krokhmal), Myrgorodovska street.
In Dmytriyivsky parish — 5 streets: Ivan Turchin street (residence of Turchin), Vasyl
Tytar street (residence of Tytar), Yakiv Kotka street (residence of Kotka), Ivan Kryvy
street (residence of Kryvy), Vasyl Kotlyar street (residence of Kotlyar).
In Blahovishensky parish — 4 streets: Berezhna street, Pomazanova street, Opanasivska
street (residence of Panasenko), Ivan Chorny street.
As we can see the Ukrainian democratic structure of Kharkov population was reflected
even in the names of its streets. The same Ukrainian democratic structure can be seen
among its landlords. In the wealthiest aristocratic part of present Kharkov — the
composite parish — we can see except for a very small number of head Cossacks (there
were no nobility and officials at that time at all), such democratic names of Cossacks and
workers as Tsiluryk (Little-barber), Zvonar (Bell-ringer), Kholod (Cold), widow Panamarka,
widow Matyashykha, Babekha, êðàâåöü Shvatchenko (Son-of-sewer) and so on. The same
goes for the landlords on the streets in the vicinity of the Mykolayivska church,
Pokrovsky monastery and the whole of Kharkov in general.
This is what D. I. Bahaliy wrote in his "History of Slobod Ukraine":
||"Maybe, what we tell here about
the Ukrainian national structure of the population of Kharkov will seem odd to its present
inhabitants, especially to those who are not interested in its history, do not see
anything Ukrainian in it nowadays and think that Kharkov has never been a Ukrainian town.
However, there are strong documental witnesses that I found in various archives. As to the
street names and surnames of landlords, there is the document that I published together
with a list of Kharkovians in 1656, in the first volume of my "History of
Kharkov" as an extra appendix to it, and if anyone wants to read it, he can find
there a great number of purely Ukrainian surnames of Kharkovians, in 1724, and among those
he will probably find not a few ancestors of the present inhabitants of Kharkov which have
long time since alienated themselves from the language of their great grandfathers."
But why there was such a great
number of petty landlords in Kharkov at that time? Because its inhabitants together with
all population of Slobod Ukraine had the privileges that were issued to all settlers by
the Moscow government, and the most important among them was the land privilege, that is a
leased land plot. The first settlers in Kharkov were allotted land plots free for good for
building their houses and the right for unrestrained, tax free use of land plots in the
suburbs. The same rights were granted to the new settlers. This was the reason why there
were so many house owners among Kharkovians — everyone who got the land in the town
immediately began to build himself a house. Village dwellers usually did so; town dwellers
did so as well — Kharkovians, as they little differed from village dwellers - their main
occupation was farming.
It was quite easy to build a
clay-walled hut — wood, reeds, straw and clay were readily available. As late as in the
beginning of the XX century in Kharkov were still exstant from older times a lot of such
houses with thatched roofs. We can see this type of houses on the old paintings of Kharkov
in XIX century. Almost all of Kharkov in XVII and the first half of XVIII century
consisted of thatched and wooden houses. The only stone buildings in the Cossacks Kharkov
were the Pokrovsky monastery, the Collegium, the
Cathedral, and two parish churches. No one had stone houses. There were 290 shops with
porches, 163 snack bars, 29 wine houses, but all of them were made of wood.
In 1724, there were only 1345 households in Kharkov, and in 1732, there were 1280
households, and the population of Kharkov including women, in 1732, was 7000, that is one
house per 5 people. Kharkovians had spacious living at that time. In Cossacks times there was no town map. On the map dated 1768 we
can also see the earlier map of Kharkov, its streets followed not along straight lines but
were twisted; there was a lot of unoccupied land. Even as late as in the end of the XVIII
century Kharkov was in essence a great common. Academician Zuyev gives a description of
Kharkov to that effect. He says that the houses were scattered here and there without any
order but sparsely — around the area of 3 or 4 verst. As he says, those were Ukrainian
clay-walled huts. The were sloboda neighborhoods —
Trans-Kharkov sloboda, Trans-Lopan sloboda, Klochkivka and even hamlets in the suburbs.
According to the new plan Kharkov was to take up 1752 acres.
Even in 1794, almost all town dwellers had their
own houses: there were 1807 households at that time, 1601 house owners, total of 1792
families; among those only 191 families did not have their own houses.
|The Process Of Russianization After The
Demolition Of Autonomy.
||In the beginning of XIX century
Kharkov streched from North to South for 2 versts, from East to West for 3 1/2 versts. Its
area took up 7 square versts, or 1 750 000 square sazhens. There was 968 square sazhens
per one household including the streets area, and 160 square sazhens for every town
dweller (there were 11 000 of them), and in 1886 there were only 35 square sazhens for
every town dweller. It was, as we can see, a great expanse of land. No wonder that at that
time there were many gardens and even vegetable gardens in Kharkov. Most of the land was
allotted free. And as there was the right to own land without any socialization or
municipalization of land in the town, the housing land was inherited, and also could be
freely sold and bought. The land price was low, building materials and work force were
cheap and consequently it was quite easy for anyone to obtaine their own house.
Here are some figures concerning
the prices of houses and houseyards at that time: a two storey stone house of colonel
Shydlovsky was bought to organize the Collegium for 500 roubles. In 1767, houses in
the center were bought for 600, 125 and 65 roubles. An empty housing area of 3200 square
meters in the end of XVIII century in the Composite parish was bought for 35 roubles,
which is a little more than 1 copeck for a square meter. House estates in Mykolayivsky
parish complete with a house, service buildings pantries, fence, wine cellar with 2
vessels and the set of accessories with its separate building, as well — total area 716
square meters — were bought for 325 roubles.
Time workers earned 10 copecks a day,
cabinetmakers - 15 copecks a day. How much is that? In 1732, one could buy 6 punds of pork
lard or 1/8 bucket of vodka, or 2 1/2 garnetses of
liquid honey, or 5 garnetses of beer, or 5 pounds of cow butter, or 30 pounds of grain. So
it means that then time workers could buy for their earnings more than the present
qualified average paid Kharkov worker, to say nothing of the old age pensioners.
The population of Kharkov living in their own
houses with gardens and vegetable plots earned their living by grain production,
manufacturing, crafts or trade. Kharkovians lived comfortably and prosperously under what
is called the Ukrainian regime that is government of that time, especially when the Moscow
military administration was cancelled and when both the Cossacks and the guild craftsmen
had their own Cossack and guild administration and their own Cossack and guild court. No
wonder that at that time a lot was done to develop and advance the local national culture.
But this was true only during the autonomy period.
|After the abolition of autonomy the
Russianization process in Kharkov was growing very quickly together with destruction of
its national Ukrainian culture. First, Kharkov was made to be administered by a region
ruler, and then by a governor with all attendant Russian governmental institutions. There
also came in Kharkov the usual Russian officials headed by the governor, the Ukrainian
Cossack leaders then turned into Russian nobility. The newborn local nobility received
from Queen Catherine II the gracious licence of nobility and together with that the power
over the whole of Ukraine. Kharkov was the venue of congresses of nobility during which
occured elections. This is how the new ruling class over the whole society emerged in
The most numerous Cossacks part of
the population was cancelled as a class of society and turned into ordinary laymen. The
number of foreigners increased considerably. There also developed and increased a cpecial
class of Russian businessmen which was almost absent during the Cossacks period. Already
in the late XVIII century in Kharkov came the Hebrews who were not there before that time.
The number of Russian craftsmen — cabinet makers, masons and so on — also increased.
V. N. Karazin arranged for works on construction of the University a great number of
foreign workers from Petersburg, especially Germans. The local Ukrainian craftsmen began
to make their products mainly for the people of lower social class and consequently their
incomes decreased, so they had to move their houses further from the center toward
suburbs. Ordinary subjects were turned back to serfdom; the nobility strived to
distantiate themselves from ordinary lay class by any means both in social and national
That was the state of affairs in the province -
in villages, as well as in towns, especially in the central regional town of Kharkov. The
Kharkov fairs were more and more overcomed with Moscow made goods instead of foreign or
Ukrainian made. Kharkov became an educational and cultural center, however it was not
Ukrainian but Russian culture. From the very beginning this was the case with Kharkov
University founded in early XIX century and with new grammar schools and the uyezd school,
and the theological seminary. Teachers were coming here not only from Ukraine, but also
from Russian regions. The national church schools in which the national language had been
kept up, were destroyed, and their place was taken by the new Russian schools. We can
observe this to take place since early XIX century, and it already led to Russianization,
that is Kharkov become more and more Russian. In addition to that Kharkov ceased to be a
Ukrainian town because its population was continually replenished with a lot of settlers
from Russian regions.
During the XIX century the
population of Kharkov grew 20 times, that is by 2000%. Such a big number, apparently,
could not be attained by simple natural growth, and it's evident that since the twenties
of the XIX century Kharkov was the destination point of the great migration of people from
other places. As early as in the beginning of the 70's of the XIX century almost as much
as one half of Kharkov inhabitants were new settlers rather that indigenous dwellers (45
%). Most settlers were coming from Kursk region, then Orlov, Moscow, Kaluga and other
Russian regions. According to the census of 1897 only 1/3 of Kharkov population (32
thousand) were the indigenous part or from Kharkov uyezd, the remaining 2/3 (73 thousand)
were new settlers. From Kursk region alone came 23 thousand people, together with other
Russian regions the figure grows to 33 thousand people. The number of foreigners also
increased considerably: from Keletsk region alone came 1500 Polish nationals, from
Caucasus — 1000 inhabitants of that place, from foreign lands — 1200 people.
This migration of non-Ukrainian people to Kharkov
just changed its previous Ukrainian appearance, especially in the latter half of XIX century. New comers
"conquered" the better positions in the city and moved aside pioneer settlers to
suburbs, which were former masters of the city and coutnry, which got and defended these
lands shedding their blood, worked the lands dripping with sweat, founded and defended
Kharkov and began all kinds of its business, trade and culture. "Volya (The Liberty)", which gave rise to
many migrants, generated new railways,
widening of trade, new factories, plants and army, where Russification dominated; raised
schools, where native Ukrainian languge was completely inadmissible,— all this had an
influence on Russification of Kharkov. But still it must be noted that Ukrainian element
lasted out among Kharkov inhabitants for a whole XIX century and was reduced right up to nowadays.
||In the beginning of XIX century Kharkov still was the
Ukrainian city, because the most part of its population kept safe of national language,
and wear, and traditions. And yet while Kvitka's time (in 30s) the weddings in Kharkov
were celebrating just in Ukrainian manner. Reingard says in his memories, that in 30s
kharkovian citizens and peasants spoke in pure Ukrainian language, had Ukrainian way of
life and traditions. Such way of life retained in Panasovka, and beyond Kharkov, yet not
to mention about Zaikivka, Zhuravlivka, Ivanivka and other slobodas.
Only in Moskalyovka, where
Russians took up the residence, the Russian folk style of speaking was audible; at the
city center, among ruling class and intelligentsia the Russian literary language dominated
in general. At the end of 70s in XIX century
Kharkov was russificated much more than its uyezd towns
or neighbouring Poltava.
And all the same after 1897 inventory 25 %
of Kharkov population acknowledged themselves as Ukraines (45092 in general, 23430 men and
21662 women), and 58 % acknowledged themselves as Russians. Even it may be supposed that
really there were much more people of Ukrainian origin in Kharkov, becouse among its
inhabitants 96 thousands were from Kharkovian province clans, and from Poltavian ones —
5 thousands, from Kievan ones — 4,5 thousands, from Katherinoslavian ones — 2,5
thousands, from Podoliyan ones — 1,5 thousands, in all from Ukrainian provincial
clans - 110 thousands, and though some of them possibly were Russians, but it seems, that
many of Ukrainians just did not acknowledged themselves as such ones, because they didn't
know, who they are in fact, and some others were pretending to be Russians for the
convenience and advantage sake. It's interesting, that Ukrainian origin was declared
mostly by representatives of lower society estates — military men, railway and home
employees, agricultural traders. Therefore we cannot say, that even at the beginning of
ÕÕ century Khakov was completely "Russian" city by national structure of
|Ukrainian National Renaissance in Kharkov in XIX
||During all XIX
century (when Russification of Kharkov and
Ukraine was going on, when whole estates - noblemen, merchants, official men and
intelligentsia in whole - moved away from Ukrainian people who repersented and
represensts the most of population in Kharkovian villages) — some persons
from intellectual and cultural milieu were noted who loved sincerely the Ukrainian people
and were eager to come nearer to them, to familiarize with treasures of folk poetry, with
their family life and language.
such persons began to write in Ukraine and created new Ukrainian literature; others
gathered the memorials and chronicles on Ukrainian history, worked on scientific history
of Ukrainian language. Such sincere loving Ukraine led to creation of groups and circles
of Ukrainian populists among Kharkovian cultured people; we watch them in Khakov during
all XIX century. Groups and circles
were creating among young people — the disciples of hihger and secondary scholls,
especially of the university — and
among society (professors of Kharkov University took considerable part in that
It should be mentioned, that
Kharkov University generally was disposed to studying of Ukraine and gave many famous
persons in this field. From the very beginning this institution understanded well that
besides its general purpose (scientific research and teaching) it must persue as South
Russia educational center a weighty object — to work for benefit of that land where it
was founded, for benefit of that people who made a great sacrifices to have the higher
school in their native land, in Slobozhanshchina. It's necessary to remember that if
Slobod Ukraine society — all its estates in whole — woudn't make a contributions for
university organizing, in no circumstances Kharkov hadn't the university before than Kiev.
It's also necessary to remember for ever about the contribution of Kharkov military
residents — 150 desyatins of landed estates on
Sumskiy Shlyakh, which costs very much now (the clinics
and laboratories of new university campus had been built there). And in the course of
almost 200 years Kharkov University have done very much for Ukraine: for studying of
its territory and population. It may be desired only that such kind of university works
should be extended now - at period of Ukrainian independence. But let's return the
As Tsebrikov told, the real
Ukrainian among professors of Kharkov University was Komlyshynsky, who spoke Ukraine, and
the same were all members of his family — father and sisters; their family life
was Ukrainian also. One of the most famous Ukrainian poets - P.P.Gulak-Artemovsky - came
from professors of Kharkov University, in 40s of XIX century he was a principle of this university.
||He wrote in wonderful, vivid, folk
Slobod-Ukrainian language; his fable "Lord and Dog", in which he
criticized the serfdom, had got a great public resonance. Works of Gulak-Artemovsky awaked
the love to Ukrainian people among society. Ukrainian and Russian literary critics (such
as N.I.Kostomarov, P.O.Kulish, professor N.I.Petrov, academician N.P.Dashkevitch) rated
highly Gulak-Artemovsky's works. The pattern of G.-A. creative work is for example
his poetical version of Goethe's "Fisher".
|Kharkov gave also a famous Ukrainian
writer Grigory Fedorovich Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, who belonged to well-known noble Cossack
clan - the Kvitka's, from which many Slobod-Ukrainian colonels and commanders originated.
Living in Osnova (one of Kharkov's suburbs of that time), Grigory Kvitka was a renowned
public figure in Kharkov, but the most glory he merited as prose-writer. He occupied the
first place among writers in olden times of Ukrainian literature.
Two volums of his stories were
published in 1834 and were a great success, especially in Kharkov and Slobozhanshchina,
because he outlined the life of Slobod Ukrainian peasants with great veracity and sincere
liking, with subtle knowledge of their way of life, their language and history. Not only
he liked Ukrainian folk language, but also he thought himself in this language and wrote
his best works in it; all that which he wrote in Russian looked out as something pale and
unimpressive. It isn't suprising, that his contemporaries, Kharkov writers of that time
— Gulak-Artemovsky, M. Kostomarov, A. Metlynsky — and all young people considered him
as father of Ukrainian prose.
||Professor Izm. Iv. Sreznevsky, who
informed Pogodin about Kvitka's death (in 1843) and his burial, which gathered not
only all Kharkov dwellers, but also peasants of neighbouring villages, added to this, that
Kvitka was the first national writer in Ukraine. Thanks to Kvitka even Kharkov city had
got the significance as literary center not only among Ukrainian, but also among Russian
writers; all of them either corresponded with Kvitka, or visited Kharkov to meet with him.
And Kvitka played also a great role
for circle of young people, who were interested in Ukrainian culture, because he was
himself like living Ukrainian annalist, historian and ethnographer; and he had a great
influence on scientists Kostomarov and Sreznevsky.
The famous historian M.I.Kostomarov graduated
from Kharkov University; under influence of Ukrainiain ethnographic research and Kvitka
personality he began to write verses and dramas in Ukraine (end of 30s and beginning
of 40s): dramas "Savva Chaly",
"Pereyaslav night", Ukrainian ballads, translations of Byron's poetry, and his
own poetry. Another graduate of Kharkov
University A.L.Metlynsky became a professor of the same university and published also his
own poetry with ethnographic editions (of songs) — "Dumy and something else". There were own author's
verses, translations from German, Czech, Polish, Serbian and Slovakian. Metlynsky had a
good command of Ukrainian, but hadn't enough poetic talent. Motives of his poetry
were sad, sometimes an influence of folk poetry could be watched; but there was sincere
love of old Cossack life, high graves, steppe and father Dnieper in his works.
Let's mention also Kharkov writers
of that period as follows: S.Pisarevsky — Kharkovian protopop, who wrote under pen-name Shereperya, created
opera "Kupala na Ivana", and beautyful popular song "I'm going across
Neman", and "Note about Yanka Miriansky"; Petro Pisarevsky, who created the
story "Stetsko Mozhebylytsya"; deacon P.Korenytsky as author of poem
"Vechornytsi", L.Borovkovsky as author of verses and fable. At the same old
times the literary poetic activity of very talented writer Ya.I.Shchogolev had started, at
the end of life he published two big collections of his works: "Vorskla" and "Slobozhanshchina".
Shchogolev was born in Akhtyrka and graduated
from Kharkov University, he began writing in Ukraine yet in 1843. Early Shchogolev's
verses described old Cossack life on base of folk songs, but he didn't take songs in
whole, and transformed their plots in pure poetic perls. Shchogolev worked after
Shevchenko, but he didn't follow him — he is rather original poet. In his new verses
published in "Vorskla" we can see marvellous poetic language, developed on base
of Slobod Ukrainian and Poltavian ones; besides of familiar plots little by little the
social and public motives appeared in his poetry — loving of simple, poor peasant people
and sympathy to their sorrow. Such wonderful verses of him are — "Snow-storm", "Fire", "Horilka", "Shynok",
"Deseas", "Weaver". Familiar motives can be watched in
"Shepherd", and in "Verzadle" he
drew three centuries of Ukrainian people and country life: free settlement of country and its wealth, hard serfdom and
liberation, which, however, didn't bring good fortune.
The famous theatre actor, producer and dramatist
M.L.Kropyvnytsky had close relation to Kharkov too; and he was burried there with a
monument on his grave. In Kharkov his dramatic works were published. In these works we can
watch a wonderful pure Ukrainian steppe (Khersonian) language, remarkable knowledge of
Ukrainian folk life, vivid humour, true pictures of national home life and social
And two Aleksandrovs — father and son — were
closely connected with Kharkov. The father wrote good verses with humorous nuance, and the
son — V.S.Aleksandrov — had created drama "Oh, don't go, Hrytsyu", operetta
"I'm going across Neman", had published collection of songs, translated psalms
in Ukrainian language ("Gentle tunes on saint motifs"), wrote good sentimental
poetry. And Maslovych is worthy to be mentioned (the editor of the first Ukrainian journal
"Kharkov Demokrit"), and Manzhura too.
Not a few number of literary miscellanies had
been published in Kharkov, i.e. collections with many Ukrainian works and articles about
Ukraine. The first one was "Ukrainian almanac" in 1831: Shpyhotsky and
L.Borovykovsky distributed Ukrainian verses there. In 1833 "Morning Star" in two
books had been published, where we can see works of Kvitka ("Soldjer Portrait"),
Gulak-Artemovsky, Hrebinka (fables and tranlation of Pushkin's "Poltava"),
Kotliarevsky (fragment from "Eneida"). In 1841 Korsun's almanac
"Sheaf" had been published, where all works were distributed only in Ukrainian;
we can see there works of Jeremy Halka (Kostomarov), the Korenytskys, Pysarevsky,
Petrenko, Korsun. In the beginning of 40s four volums of "Molodyk (New Moon)" by
Betskoy had come out, where Ukrainian works of Hrebinka exclusively were published with a
great number of articles and sources on history of Ukraine. In 1887
V.S.Aleksandrov's "Skladka (Assembled)" had appered. He had the luck to gather
his almanac of works of great artistic meaning: there we see works of Samiylenko,
Bililovsky — translation of Schiller's "Bell" and very nice verses
("From Alps", "But let me live"), Grinchenko's and Hanna Barvinok's
stories, treatments of Aleksandrov himself. This collection was the proof of growth degree
of Ukrainian literature at the end of XIX century. Indeed, Ukrainian language had to be perfect enough, if the translation of Schiller's
"Bell" was possible in it at that time. All these Ukrainian writer's works
testified to that real Ukraine was keeping safe in Kharkov.
And together with writers many scientists
and culture figures in Kharkov worked for Ukrainian Renaissance. A great deal in this sence has been done by
professors of Kharkov University both in olden times and in XX century.
As to Ukrainian ethnography we must remember, that the first collection of Ukrainian
songs by prince Tsertelev had come out in 1819. Then in 1831 —1832 professor
I.I.Sreznevsky (famous academician-Slavist afterwards) had published in Kharkov 2 parts of
"Zaporozhian olden times" in 5 books, where many folk dumas, songs and
historical research had been collected. Some of these materials were rejected later by
critics, but in general this collection impressed a society very much and raised language,
poetry and history of Ukrainian people in public opinion. Concerning Ukrainian language,
Sreznevsky firstly in 1834 identified it as original
Slavonic one and some years later only
spoke against Ukrainian literature and culture.
Professor A.L.Metlynsky appeared as Ukrainian
ethnographer. He gathered not only song texts but tunes too; as De-Poulet remembered, bandurists always were dear guests for him. In Kharkov
he had published in 1848 "Southern Russian Collection", and in Kiev (1854)
"Folk songs of South Russia" — more then 400 songs have been represented
there, whereas Maksymovich's collection had only 130 ones. A.L.Metlynsky sincerely loved
Ukrainian language and considered it in series of the others Slav languages, and far later
he considered it as the special "dialect of Russian language" only.
||In Kharkov the famous historian
M.I.Kostomarov began his activity and work on history of Ukrainian people and on Ukrainian
literary memorials (we have told yet about his poetic editions under pseudonym Jeremy
Halka). He had written and published in Kharkov the research work about Unia, which however had been cremated for "harmful
tendency". Then M.I.Kostomarov was forced to write new work, for to receive master's
degree on Russian history, — "About historical importance of Russian folk
poetry", in which he told principally about Ukrainian folk poetry. During Kharkov
period M.I.Kostomarov wrote another works on Ukrainian history and history of Ukrainian
And in the first half of
XIX century many culture figures in Kharkov
began to work on local history of Slobod Ukraine — there were I.I.Kvitka, the uncle of writer G.F.
Kvitka(Osnovyanenko), G.F.Kvitka himself, I.I.Sreznevsky and Kharkovian archbishop
Phylaret. I.I.Kvitka wrote "Notes on Slobod regiments" (Kharkov, 1812), G.F.Kvitka — "Historical-statistical
description of Slobozhanshchina" (in "Kharkov Provincial Gazette", 1838),
"On Slobod regiments" ("Contemporary", 1840), "The
Ukrainians" ("Contemporary", 1841), "Kharkov town"
("Contemporary", 1840). It's necessary to mention about G.F.Kvitka's historical
tale "Founding of Kharkov". On base of sources I.I.Sreznevsky carried out although compact but very important
research work — "Historical representation of civil arrangement of Slobod
Ukraine". It's interesting to remind there, that
M.I.Kostomarov also restored on base of archive sources the history of Ostrogozhsk regiment, but tzar's gendarmes confiscated his manuscript,
and it was lost in police-station.
A work of great significance for that time was
"Historical-statistical description of Kharkov's eparchies"
by Kharkovian archbishop Phylaret (Humylevsky) in 5 parts, where a great number of archive
materials was collected not only on church, but on civil history of Slobozhanshchina. For
this great work archbishop Phylaret must be considered as Nestor (Slav annalist) of
Slobod-Ukrainian church history.
In the second half of XIX century we can watch appearance in Kharkov of considerable ethnographic collections of memorials of Ukrainian folk
literatire and of research works on Ukrainian language, literature and history of
Ukrainian people. In the first place we can designate a great linguist Ol.Af.Potebnia, the
most renowned professor-Slavist of Kharkov University for all period of its existence
(born in 1835, died in 1891). He graduated from Kharkov University and by his own words
the Metlynsky's collection of songs was his first manual in Ukrainian language. His works
on Ukrainian culture concern mainly to language and social anthropology: "Notes on
Malo-Russian dialect", "Explanations of Malo-Russian and cognate folk
songs" (2 volums), critical notices on publication of Halychina songs by
Yak.Holovatsky, on P.Zhytetsky research work about sound history of Malo-Russian language,
etc. His knowledge of Ukrainian language was quite perfect and he even translated himself
the part of Homer's "Odyssey" in verses, published Gulak-Artemovsky's poetry,
G.F.Kvitka's stories, Manzhura's verses. He was adherent of the most broad development of
all nations and their languages, including Ukrainian people. In this respect his views on
undoubted damage of Russification and violent propagation of Polish in Ukraine have a
great importance even today.
One of Potebnia followers was professor
M.F.Sumtsov (born in 1854), who had a great number of serious works on history of ancient
Ukrainian literature and Ukrainin ethnography. During almost 40 years professor
D.I.Bagaliy worked in Kharkov, he was engaged in history and archaeology of Ukraine,
especially of Left-Shore region, and more ecpecially of Slobod Ukraine. Professor
A.S.Lebedev and protoiyerey Myk.Lashchenko worked
on history of local church, and professor Y.K.Redin - on history of local art; it's
interesting that Lebedev and Redin weren't Ukrainian themselves, but worked very
diligently for Ukraine weal.
The warm words must be said about the Efimenkos;
he - Petro Savych - was a Ukrainian, but his wife — Aleksandra Yakovlevna - wasn't a
Ukrainian, what didn't hamper her to write valuable works on history and law in Ukraine,
moreover almost all her works Aleksandra Yakovlevna wrote just in Kharkov. It's necessary
to refer here to spontaneous research works of professor P.Lavrovsky (about Ukrainian
language), and professor Zelenogorsky (about Skovoroda).
And professors of another university departmetnts
also concerned Ukraine in their research works, for example, Cherniayev, Borysiak, Gurov
(Natural Science Department) and M.O.Maksimeyko (Faculty of Law). And a great deal had
been done for understanding of nature, history, ethnography of Ukraine by university
scientific societies — namely by Historical-Philological Society and Natural Science
Society. Within the frame of Historical-Philological Society historical archives had been
founded, where a great number of archiv sources on Left Shore and Slobod Ukraine had been
collected by P.S.Efimenko and D.I.Bagaliy; many scientists worked there who developed
Ukrainian history. Among them we can mark I.V.Telychenko, M.M.Plokhynsky and very talented
D.P.Miller especially. This society publised many materials on history and ethnography of
In 1902 Archaeological Congress was arranged in
Kharkov. Professor E.K.Redin worked most of all for this. As congress result four
Ukrainian museums had appeared: 1) Archaeological and Histor³cal Department at Antiques
Museum of Kharkov University, 2) Church Department of Slobod Ukraine Antiquity at the same
museum, 3) Eparchial Museum of Church Slobod-Ukrainian Antiquity, 4) Ethnogaphic Museum of
Slobozhanshchina at Kharkov University; there were professor O.M.Krasnov and O.P.Radakova
who made an important contribution to its organizing. Ukrainian Department had been
created at Kharkov Book Chamber. Publishing Committee of Kharkov Literacy Association
published Ukrainian books also while D.I.Bagaliy was at the head of it (more than one
million books!). For several years Ukrainian Kvitka's Society existed in Kharkov, and then
"Prosvita (Enlightenment)" was founded in the beginning of ÕÕ century.
As for Ukrainian art in Kharkov, in addition to
Church Department of university museum and Eparchial Museum of Church Slobod-Ukrainian
Antiquity, the painting collection of famous artist Serhiy Ivanovuch Vasylkivsky had been
gathered in Kharkov City Museum, where old Ukrainian churches were painted in oils, and
the portrait collection of famous persons in Slobozhanshchina. There was Ukrainian
Antiquity Department at University Art Museum, and paintings of some Ukrainian artists
were collected also, for example, of D.I.Bezperchy and other young artists of that time.
Many Ukrainian landscapes were represented by artists Tkachenko and Levchenko.
Slobozhanshchina (namely Chuguyev town) gave a great artist I.Y.Repin to the world.
S.I.Vasylkivsky left the wonderful heritage for native Slobozhanshchina - all his colossal
collection of arts - for to found Slobozhanshchina Museum on this base.
As for Ukrainian theatre, it was in Kharkov,
although not as constant stage, for a long time. In former times very talented Ukrainian
actor Solenic shined on its scene, he was burried in Kharkov graveyard with the monument
and Ukrainian legend on it. In Kharkov glorious Russian artist Shchepkin played a part in
"Moskal Charivnyk (Moscovite the Wizard)", but the most great deal had been made
for Ukrainian Renaissance among Kharkovians by the father of new Ukrainian theatre Marko
Lukych Kropyvnytsky, and by another coryphaeus of Ukrainian stage — M.K.Zankovetska,
During all XIX century there were several circles of Ukrainian youth in Kharkov,
there were some groups of city-dwellers also, such as D.P.Pilchikov, who took part even in
Cyryl-and-Mephody brotherhood, and then in founding of T.G.Shevchenko Association in Lwov;
or O.L.Shymaniv, who wrote interesting research work on former loan land-ownership in Slobozhanshchina. Apropos let's remember that
D.P.Pilchikov's son, outstanding physicist N.D.Pilchikkov
also made a great deal for native land not only as natural scientist but as Ukrainian
patriot, in particular, he supported Mendeleyev's organizing of All-Russian
T.G.Shevchenkko Society for Ukraine studying in St.Petersburg.
Let's remember there our renowned
fellow-countryman M.I.Dragomirov, who always spoke Ukrainian while visiting of native
country and loved sincerely Ukraine and Ukrainian way of life. In period when D.I.Bagaliy
was a principal of Kharkov University there was large student's Ukrainian
community, from which many young figures of Ukrainian revival in Kharkov came out in
the beginning of ÕÕ century and in years of revolution.
Let's finish with the testament of D.I.Bagaliy,
with the final lines of his fundamental work "History of Slobod Ukraine":
||"Ukrainian revival will extend
in Kharkov as well as in other towns of Ukraine. Kharkov cannot dissociate itself now from
Ukrainian peasant's life in Slobozhanshchina and another parts of our mother Ukraine. This
revival (but not Ukrainization) have to be free, without any compulsion. Let all nations
live freely in Ukraine; let any of them live in its own way, starting with our native
brothers Russians and Byelorussians, because national base is necessary for each of them.
And let Ukrainian culture extend among Ukrainians, and let children of Ukraine care and
trouble about it - all who love their people and wish them well - , because aliens won't
trouble. Let all nations have a free life in Ukraine, but new Ukrainian settlers must
remember that it's impossible to humble in their native land (as it was in former times)
that Ukrainian people, who populated this land, defenced it from enemies and pour their
labour sweat on it for a long time. And we all, the children of Ukraine, will remember a
great humane testament of unforgettable Kobsar:
||To industrious minds, to industrious
||Don't wait, plough your lands,
think and sow, —
and the crop you will mow.
It means that our nation itself
in alliance with its intellectuals must work for the nation's common weal."