Old Kharkov. Linocut by Y. M. Starostenko
 

 

BEGINNING
  The Birth
  And Development
  Of Kharkov
 
  or
 
  Kharkov
  as
  a Ukrainian
  town
   

 

Kharkov in XVIIXVIII centuries

An Essay After A Historical Research work by

The Process of Russianization After The Abolition Of Autonomy

Dmitry Ivanovich Bagaliy

Ukrainian National Renaissance in Kharkov in XIX century

  
     
  

 

"Ukrainian national lifestyle used to be seen not only in villages, as it is now, but also in towns, cities, where it is very scarce at present. We can see it even in as central a town as Kharkov, whose population at present is so much Russified that most of it probably isn't aware that sometimes Kharkov used to be a completely Ukrainian town, and later, when it was Russianized, a part of its Ukrainian inteligentsia, feeling close affinity to the people, was working for the renaissance of it's people and has carefully carried this desire until present days to this great Ukrainian movement which not only started but also continues to implement both national and political revival of the whole Ukraine and with it Kharkov and Sobozhan region."

  
D. I. Bagaliy. The History of Slobod Ukraine,
Kharkov, "Delta", 1999.
A facsimile publication: PUBLISHING HOUSE "SOYUZ" Kharkov Cooperative Credit Union, 1918, "The Library of Culture and History" series
     
 
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  Kharkov in XVII XVIII centuries
 
 
 
    

Kharkov was established in 1654, at the same time when Bogdan Khmelnitsky and the whole of Ukraine came under Moscow's "protection". The town was established by a party of Ukrainian settlers with their leader the settlement chief Ivan Karkach. Let memory of Ivan Karkach will remain forever in Kharkov together with reminiscence of the first Kharkov Cossac ataman Ivan Krivoshlyk. Although I. Karkach as the first Kharkov osadchy is mentioned only in later dated sources (latter half of the XVIII century), however we can dismiss them and dismiss Karkach together with them, because there was no reason to invent him at that time: it is obvious that this name has continued to live in people's memory, and besides that the earlier sources testify to the existance of the name Karkach among the inhabitants of Kharkov; it can, however, be found today as well.

Ukrainian settlers from Transdnieper region came to a wild field and settled where the Kharkov flows into the Lopan within Kharkov enclosure, on the location where in the past (in Pre-Mongolian era, i.e. in XII century) probably used to be located an ancient Russian Ukrainian town - at present it is Kharkov's "University Hill" with a temple and the old University building. Here, in 1656, Kharkovians constructed an earth embankment and a wooden fence around the enclosure and made it, as we now know, after their own Ukrainian fashion in order to defend themselves from Tatarians, however this fence was not approved by the Moscow warcommander who demanded that the fortification be made after Moscovian fashion.

The scheme of Kharkov fortification XVIII century

In this way from the beginning the two powers - Ukrainian and Great Russian - came on the scene in cultural sphere as well. However, as to its population we can safely say that Kharkov was a purely Ukrainian town, because a great number of Ukrainians came here at once 587 male Cossacs, which together with women and children could probably be estimated about 2000. They formed a Cossacs union divided into squadrons and tens with the ataman and squadron and ten commanders.

D. I. Bagaliy was lucky to find in the archives and printed a list these Kharkovians which shows that they were Ukrainians Ivanenko, Timoshenko, Yefimenko, Gordiyenko, Oleksiyenko, Melnyk (Miller), Kolesnyk (Wheelwright), Koval (Smith), Kushnir (Furrier), Kotlyar (Boiler-maker), Shvets (Sewer), Tkach (Weaver), Kravets (Tailor). We can see among them Zhuravl(Crane), Dudka (Pipe), Strikha (Eaves), Lomaka (Poseur), Teterya(Blackcock), Syroyizhka (Russula), Horobets (Sparrow) and so on. There was one Tykhy (Calm), one Durny (Stupid), one Kryvy (One-eyed), one Nedbayenko. A Kremenchutsky (probably from Kremenchug), a Voloshenin (probably from Voloshchyna), Moskal (from Moscovia). We can also see Yakov - Sharko's son in law: apparently Sharko himself was a more noticable figure than his son in law Yakov who got his surname from his father in law.

Ukrainian characters: commander of a hundred. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

This was the main group of settlers, and then other groups began to join it. As we know, mostly people were coming from the Right Shore Ukraine, especially during the hard times of the Ruin, people were coming from Hetmanshchina, from other areas of Slobod Ukraine, as Kharkov attracted people being a military and business town. The central Moscow government had here its Russian officials as well, however they were not as numerous compared to Ukrainian population.

In 1665, Kharkov male population was 2282 (1290 middle-class citizens and 992 grain-growers), and 133 Russians (children of the nobility and other officials).

In 1668, Ukrainian male population was 1491, 75 Russians (military officers and officials). (This figure probably shows the number of Cossacs and military staff not counting children and relatives.)

In 1670, there was an increase of Russian population in Kharkov, because there remained Russian military staff to defend the town from Tatarians. There was at that time 2101 strong male Ukrainian population, 415 strong male Russian population.

In 1673, there were 1276 Ukrainian males, 118 Russians; they were all children of the nobility in municipal service, and there were no more Russians in military service.

In 1675, the number of Russian military staff had considerably risen again (6 times as much): now there were 625 of them.

In 1686, there were 571 Russians against 1937 Ukrainians.

It follows that Russian population in Kharkov was transitory one. Ukrainians themselves had settled in Kharkov for good, whereas Russian military and governmental officials were occasionally sent there by the Moscovian government not of their own accord and their will, not for settlement, but for defence. So the true and permanent settlers in Kharkov were Ukrainians, who built themselves houses, established their living, ploughed up the land, developed crafts business and trade. As to the social structure of Kharkov population in XVII century, it then consisted of a) Cossacs in military service, b) middle class citizens and c) manufactury workers. The highest authority in Kharkov was the military officers' board. The Russian population was administered by the military commander - voivode, a separate administration body governed the middle class citizens, and the manufactury workers were administered by elected supervisors.
Ukrainian characters: regiment commander. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

In XVIII century, in its second quarter, Kharkov was a purely Ukrainian town. From Khrushchev's census of 1732 we find out that the proportion of Ukrainians against Russians increased in comparison with XVII century. Kharkovians' surnames are purely Ukrainian, and if N.V.Gogol had known them, he would not have to invent his Ukrainian characters' surnames: we can see there Kvitka (Flower), and Horlytsia (Pigeon), and Nezovybatko (Don't-call-father), and Bohomaz (Icon-painter), and Lupycobyla (Thrash-the-mare), and Lupycobylenko, and Sukhorebryk (Dry-rib), and Nederycut (Don't-strip-the-corner), and Kadyhrobenko (Burn-incense-over-coffin), and Otchenashko (The-Lord's-prayer), and Kusvovk (Bite-the-wolf) , and Shtanko (Breeches), and Patsyuk (Rat), and Varenyk (a kind of farinaceous foods).

It is interesting to know the structure of Kharkov population in 1732 from social and national point of view. The most numerous part of Kharkov's population were Cossacks: there were 775 elected Cossacks, their assistants 1531, Cossack followers 85; head Cossacks and workers 71, guild craftsmen 492, subjects, laymen and workers 205, clergymen and deacons 170; Russians 235, Greeks and other foreigners 21; total of 3595 people.

So the most numeorus were Cossack assistants, they are followed by elected Cossacks, and then guild craftsmen. Which means that from social perspective Kharkov was the same Cossacks Ukrainian town like other towns in Slobod Ukraine. The only difference was that here lived many craftsmen, something that we don't see in other towns. Kharkov middle class citizens in the beginning of XVIII century, as far as we know, were considered as Cossacks and appointed under the authority of the military administration.

Kharkov Cossacks were divided into two units called squadrons. The elected Cossacks were more well of than their assistants. The elected Cossacks had more servants who lived in their families. For every household of an elected Cossack there were total of 5 males, and if we count servants and helpers it would total to 5, 7 people per household. So we can see that those were very large families, whereas we have been accustomed to thinking that Ukrainian families were usually small. Sometimes one family occupied one house, more often however it would occupy several houses situated within the same courtyard.

Still, sometimes there were small households: there were as many as 14 one person households. 60 households with servants and helpers had 3-4 people per household. It is interesting to note that there were Cossack widows that probably hired workers to be engaged in military service. 20% of households had non-relatives living with them in their families. Cossack assistants had the total of 6 males per household.  Only 12 assistants' houses were located not in the town but in the suburbs, and 21 families lived in other people's households, which belonged to Cossack leader or widows.

Ukrainian characters: clerk. Engraving.
Among the people who belonged to the Cossack administration body were Kharkov regiment commander Grygory Semenovych Kvitka, martial judge Roman Grygorovych Kvitka, regiment cornet Rybasenko, commander of the First squadron Grygory Vasylyovych Kovalevsky and commander of the Second squadron  - Yak. Khv. Denysevych. Others had their own households as well: commander of a squadron in Valky and then colonel Iv. Gr. Kvitka, colonel Kulikovsky's widow, regiment secretary, two regiment chancellery secretaries, 5 town hall secretaries and 1 customs secretary. This was a small number of Cossack leaders that later turned into nobility.

Guild craftsmen belonged to the following trades: weavers, tailors, boiler-makers, blacksmiths, butchers, rymars, musicians, glaziers, cap-makers, coopers, potters, tailors, tar-makers, furriers, cabinetmakers, oil-millers, wine makers, malters, kotzars (men and women). It is interesting to note that musicians belonged to guild craftsmen as well, for they played on weddings and actually earned their living by their trade. The present Rymarskaya and Kotsarskaya streets got their names from rymars and kotzars. All manufactury workers had their own courtyards and houses, except for 5 people, who lived in colonel Kvitka's household. Manufactury workers had even less numerous families, than Cossac assistants, they had little more than 3 people per household. However, they had servants and helpers up to 2 people per family. This means that the craftsmen had much more hired workers than Cossacs or assistants, as every craftsman wanted to have a hired worker.

There were 116 clergymen and workers. There were at that time 9 churches in Kharkov and in every church there were usually 2 clergymen, and in the composite parish there were 2 protopops. In the monastery there were 13 monastery workers. Clergymen lived in church houses built near the churches. Moreover some priests had in addition to that their own households where lived their servants and workers. As we know, there were church schools where teachers deacons lived. There were 19 such teachers at that time in Kharkov. There were also church hospitals. In Kharkov Collegium lived the pupils of the Latin school.

The subjects lived in 29 houses situated in 22 house yards. They lived in the suburbs in small hamlets: the hamlets of colonel Kvitka, ensign Chernyak, Cossack Kovalenko, land militia colonel Dunin, colonel Kulikovsky, squadron commander Mikhailov, Kharkov squadron commander Kovalevsky, Kharkov store proprietress Nazarenkova, Kharkov Pokrovsky monastery, the Trinity priest, Kharkov mayor Golukhovich; near this hamlet there was a mill on the Kharkov river, the mill was the residence of the miller and his family. There were another 2 mills with millers on the Kharkov river.

A special position in Kharkov had Russians and foreigners. They were divided into several categories.

A number of Russian people even belonged to the Cossacks. They were ex military staff that joined the Cossacks when in 1700, in Kharkov was canceled the post of voivode; they were not numerous 13 households. Still there were merchants that had the right to reside in Kharkov with a certificate and were engaged in business and trade. They came from various Russian towns Kursk, Vereya, Belgorod, Chuguev, Tula, Yelts, Venyov. There were besides that military staff "abshytovany" (?This  term have to be amplified. Author of site) captain, lieutenants and others; almost all of them had their own buildings in Kharkov. There were also military men from Moscow that previously joined the Cossacks and in 1731 they were ranked among ordinary subjects and converted to land militia men.
Ukrainian characters: Cossac. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

There were 21 Greeks and other nationals, including one baptized African and a Polish widow, and there were no Hebrews at all. There were two Greeks Kostyantynov and Chelenbi, who were merchants; one of them had an employee of Tartarian nationality.

Although Kharkov was then just the same military town like Sumy, Okhtyrka, Izyum, Ostrohozk and did no had the importance of an administrative center of the whole of Slobod Ukraine, however, taking into account the size and social structure of its population it was different from those towns and had an advantage over them. It was a Ukrainian Cossacks town, but the size of its Russian population was incomparable to that in other military towns.

Ukrainian characters: common Cossac. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

At that time there was Russian merchant population in Kharkov that later increased considerably. These were the first signs of changes in the look of Kharkov that happened later. In 1732, it was a Ukrainian town in its national and social structure. More than 90 % of its population were Ukrainians. The Cossacks proportion was the most numerous. Cossacks were the owners of the majority of town estates and houses. They were followed by Ukrainian craftsmen it was a stable social stratum, that was engaged in a trade which was in high demand. Craftsmen resided in their own houses as well. Both Cossacks and guild craftsmen settled in Kharkov proper, and even in the central part of it, rather than in the suburbs.

It is interesting to note that even the streets at that time got their names from these common Cossacks and craftsmen. Not to mention such streets as Rymarska, Chobotarska (Shoemaker Street), Kotsarska, Kuznechna (Blacksmith Street) - they were titled after their corresponding crafts -, we can see such names of Kharkov streets in 1724 in the Composite parish: Colonel Kvitka Street in castle, Judge (Kvitka) Street, Sotnitska street (Commander's of a hundred-squadron Street), Besidyna street (Besidyn's residence), Mikhail Drykha street (residence of Mikhail Drykha), Sushkova street (residence of Sushchyha), Maks. Pysar street (residence of M. Pysar), Sem. Bogodukhovsky street (residence of Sem. Bogodukhovsky), Synytsky street (residence of Synytsky), Yenoshchyna street (residence of Yenokha), Borysenkova street (residence of cannoneer Borysenko), Pistunova street (residence of Pistun), Hrebenykova street (residence of Hrebenyk), Kulykivka street (residence of Kulyk), Chaychyna street (residence of Chayka) along the hollow; total of 20 streets in the center.

There were 6 streets in Mykolayiv parish: Shapovalova street along the hollow (residence of Shapoval), Karabutova street (residence of Karabut), Bybykova street (residence of Bybyk), Shemetova street, Kaleberdyna street (residence of Kaleberda).

Two streets in Voznesensky parish Shapranivska street (residence of Shapran), Chugayivska street (residence of Chugay).

One in Pokrovsky monastery parish Pyshchalchyna street (residence of Pyshchalko).

Ukrainian characters: peasant woman. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

In Rozhdestvensky parish 5 streets: Moskalivka, Shylova street (residence of Shylo), Probyta street, Dovgalivka street, Bezsalivka street.

6 streets in Troyitsky parish: Nazartseva street (residence of Nazarets), Klymenkova street (residence of Klymenko), Hunchenkova street (residence of Hunka), Master Sizion street (residence of Sizion), Yurchenkova street (residence of Yurkevich).

In Mykhaylivsky parish 4 streets: Kulynychyna street (residence of Kulynych), Korsunovska street, Zolotareva street (residence of Zolotarenko), Vereshchakivska street.

8 streets in Voskresensky parish Dekhtyareva street, Kotlyarova street (residence of Kotlyar), Mylnykova street (residence of Mylnychka), Onopriyeva street (residence of Onopriy Riznyk), To Merkul street (residence of Merkul), Sklyareva street (residence of Sklyar), Krokhmaleva street (residence of Krokhmal), Myrgorodovska street.

In Dmytriyivsky parish 5 streets: Ivan Turchin street (residence of Turchin), Vasyl Tytar street (residence of Tytar), Yakiv Kotka street (residence of Kotka), Ivan Kryvy street (residence of Kryvy), Vasyl Kotlyar street (residence of Kotlyar).

In Blahovishensky parish 4 streets: Berezhna street, Pomazanova street, Opanasivska street (residence of Panasenko), Ivan Chorny street.

As we can see the Ukrainian democratic structure of Kharkov population was reflected even in the names of its streets. The same Ukrainian democratic structure can be seen among its landlords. In the wealthiest aristocratic part of present Kharkov the composite parish we can see except for a very small number of head Cossacks (there were no nobility and officials at that time at all), such democratic names of Cossacks and workers as Tsiluryk (Little-barber), Zvonar (Bell-ringer), Kholod (Cold), widow Panamarka, widow Matyashykha, Babekha, Shvatchenko (Son-of-sewer) and so on. The same goes for the landlords on the streets in the vicinity of the Mykolayivska church, Pokrovsky monastery and the whole of Kharkov in general.

This is what D. I. Bahaliy wrote in his "History of Slobod Ukraine":

      
  "Maybe, what we tell here about the Ukrainian national structure of the population of Kharkov will seem odd to its present inhabitants, especially to those who are not interested in its history, do not see anything Ukrainian in it nowadays and think that Kharkov has never been a Ukrainian town. However, there are strong documental witnesses that I found in various archives. As to the street names and surnames of landlords, there is the document that I published together with a list of Kharkovians in 1656, in the first volume of my "History of Kharkov" as an extra appendix to it, and if anyone wants to read it, he can find there a great number of purely Ukrainian surnames of Kharkovians, in 1724, and among those he will probably find not a few ancestors of the present inhabitants of Kharkov which have long time since alienated themselves from the language of their great grandfathers."  
     

But why there was such a great number of petty landlords in Kharkov at that time? Because its inhabitants together with all population of Slobod Ukraine had the privileges that were issued to all settlers by the Moscow government, and the most important among them was the land privilege, that is a leased land plot. The first settlers in Kharkov were allotted land plots free for good for building their houses and the right for unrestrained, tax free use of land plots in the suburbs. The same rights were granted to the new settlers. This was the reason why there were so many house owners among Kharkovians everyone who got the land in the town immediately began to build himself a house. Village dwellers usually did so; town dwellers did so as well Kharkovians, as they little differed from village dwellers - their main occupation was farming.

 
Ukrainian characters: village dweller. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)
 
Ukrainian characters: village woman. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

It was quite easy to build a clay-walled hut wood, reeds, straw and clay were readily available. As late as in the beginning of the XX century in Kharkov were still exstant from older times a lot of such houses with thatched roofs. We can see this type of houses on the old paintings of Kharkov in XIX century. Almost all of Kharkov in XVII and the first half of XVIII century consisted of thatched and wooden houses. The only stone buildings in the Cossacks Kharkov were the Pokrovsky monastery, the Collegium, the Cathedral, and two parish churches. No one had stone houses. There were 290 shops with porches, 163 snack bars, 29 wine houses, but all of them were made of wood.

In 1724, there were only 1345 households in Kharkov, and in 1732, there were 1280 households, and the population of Kharkov including women, in 1732, was 7000, that is one house per 5 people. Kharkovians had spacious living at that time. In Cossacks times there was no town map. On the map dated 1768 we can also see the earlier map of Kharkov, its streets followed not along straight lines but were twisted; there was a lot of unoccupied land. Even as late as in the end of the XVIII century Kharkov was in essence a great common. Academician Zuyev gives a description of Kharkov to that effect. He says that the houses were scattered here and there without any order but sparsely around the area of 3 or 4 verst. As he says, those were Ukrainian clay-walled huts. The were sloboda neighborhoods Trans-Kharkov sloboda, Trans-Lopan sloboda, Klochkivka and even hamlets in the suburbs. According to the new plan Kharkov was to take up 1752 acres.

Even in 1794, almost all town dwellers had their own houses: there were 1807 households at that time, 1601 house owners, total of 1792 families; among those only 191 families did not have their own houses.

  
 

 

   
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The Process Of Russianization After The Demolition Of Autonomy.
 
 
     
        
In the beginning of XIX century Kharkov streched from North to South for 2 versts, from East to West for 3 1/2 versts. Its area took up 7 square versts, or 1 750 000 square sazhens. There was 968 square sazhens per one household including the streets area, and 160 square sazhens for every town dweller (there were 11 000 of them), and in 1886 there were only 35 square sazhens for every town dweller. It was, as we can see, a great expanse of land. No wonder that at that time there were many gardens and even vegetable gardens in Kharkov. Most of the land was allotted free. And as there was the right to own land without any socialization or municipalization of land in the town, the housing land was inherited, and also could be freely sold and bought. The land price was low, building materials and work force were cheap and consequently it was quite easy for anyone to obtaine their own house.
 
Ukrainian characters: bourgeois. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)
 
Ukrainian characters: bourgeois woman. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

Here are some figures concerning the prices of houses and houseyards at that time: a two storey stone house of colonel Shydlovsky was bought to organize the Collegium for 500 roubles. In 1767, houses in the center were bought for 600, 125 and 65 roubles. An empty housing area of 3200 square meters in the end of XVIII century in the Composite parish was bought for 35 roubles, which is a little more than 1 copeck for a square meter. House estates in Mykolayivsky parish complete with a house, service buildings pantries, fence, wine cellar with 2 vessels and the set of accessories with its separate building, as well total area 716 square meters were bought for 325 roubles.

Time workers earned 10 copecks a day, cabinetmakers - 15 copecks a day. How much is that? In 1732, one could buy 6 punds of pork lard or 1/8 bucket of vodka, or 2 1/2 garnetses of liquid honey, or 5 garnetses of beer, or 5 pounds of cow butter, or 30 pounds of grain. So it means that then time workers could buy for their earnings more than the present qualified average paid Kharkov worker, to say nothing of the old age pensioners.

The population of Kharkov living in their own houses with gardens and vegetable plots earned their living by grain production, manufacturing, crafts or trade. Kharkovians lived comfortably and prosperously under what is called the Ukrainian regime that is government of that time, especially when the Moscow military administration was cancelled and when both the Cossacks and the guild craftsmen had their own Cossack and guild administration and their own Cossack and guild court. No wonder that at that time a lot was done to develop and advance the local national culture. But this was true only during the autonomy period.

After the abolition of autonomy the Russianization process in Kharkov was growing very quickly together with destruction of its national Ukrainian culture. First, Kharkov was made to be administered by a region ruler, and then by a governor with all attendant Russian governmental institutions. There also came in Kharkov the usual Russian officials headed by the governor, the Ukrainian Cossack leaders then turned into Russian nobility. The newborn local nobility received from Queen Catherine II the gracious licence of nobility and together with that the power over the whole of Ukraine. Kharkov was the venue of congresses of nobility during which occured elections. This is how the new ruling class over the whole society emerged in Kharkov.
Ukrainian characters: nobleman. Engraving by T. Kalinsky (XVIII century)

The most numerous Cossacks part of the population was cancelled as a class of society and turned into ordinary laymen. The number of foreigners increased considerably. There also developed and increased a cpecial class of Russian businessmen which was almost absent during the Cossacks period. Already in the late XVIII century in Kharkov came the Hebrews who were not there before that time. The number of Russian craftsmen cabinet makers, masons and so on also increased. V. N. Karazin arranged for works on construction of the University a great number of foreign workers from Petersburg, especially Germans. The local Ukrainian craftsmen began to make their products mainly for the people of lower social class and consequently their incomes decreased, so they had to move their houses further from the center toward suburbs. Ordinary subjects were turned back to serfdom; the nobility strived to distantiate themselves from ordinary lay class by any means both in social and national sphere.

That was the state of affairs in the province - in villages, as well as in towns, especially in the central regional town of Kharkov. The Kharkov fairs were more and more overcomed with Moscow made goods instead of foreign or Ukrainian made. Kharkov became an educational and cultural center, however it was not Ukrainian but Russian culture. From the very beginning this was the case with Kharkov University founded in early XIX century and with new grammar schools and the uyezd school, and the theological seminary. Teachers were coming here not only from Ukraine, but also from Russian regions. The national church schools in which the national language had been kept up, were destroyed, and their place was taken by the new Russian schools. We can observe this to take place since early XIX century, and it already led to Russianization, that is Kharkov become more and more Russian. In addition to that Kharkov ceased to be a Ukrainian town because its population was continually replenished with a lot of settlers from Russian regions.

Old Kharkov. The building of the local administration and town council of Mykolayivskaya square

During the XIX century the population of Kharkov grew 20 times, that is by 2000%. Such a big number, apparently, could not be attained by simple natural growth, and it's evident that since the twenties of the XIX century Kharkov was the destination point of the great migration of people from other places. As early as in the beginning of the 70's of the XIX century almost as much as one half of Kharkov inhabitants were new settlers rather that indigenous dwellers (45 %). Most settlers were coming from Kursk region, then Orlov, Moscow, Kaluga and other Russian regions. According to the census of 1897 only 1/3 of Kharkov population (32 thousand) were the indigenous part or from Kharkov uyezd, the remaining 2/3 (73 thousand) were new settlers. From Kursk region alone came 23 thousand people, together with other Russian regions the figure grows to 33 thousand people. The number of foreigners also increased considerably: from Keletsk region alone came 1500 Polish nationals, from Caucasus 1000 inhabitants of that place, from foreign lands 1200 people.

This migration of non-Ukrainian people to Kharkov just changed its previous Ukrainian appearance, especially in the latter half of XIX century. New comers "conquered" the better positions in the city and moved aside pioneer settlers to suburbs, which were former masters of the city and coutnry, which got and defended these lands shedding their blood, worked the lands dripping with sweat, founded and defended Kharkov and began all kinds of its business, trade and culture. "Volya (The Liberty)", which gave rise to many migrants, generated new railways, widening of trade, new factories, plants and army, where Russification dominated; raised schools, where native Ukrainian languge was completely inadmissible, all this had an influence on Russification of Kharkov. But still it must be noted that Ukrainian element lasted out among Kharkov inhabitants for a whole  XIX century and was reduced right up to nowadays.

Ukraine man.Art.M.Yu.Rachkov(XIX century.)Kharkov Art Museum
In the beginning of XIX century Kharkov still was the Ukrainian city, because the most part of its population kept safe of national language, and wear, and traditions. And yet while Kvitka's time (in 30s) the weddings in Kharkov were celebrating just in Ukrainian manner. Reingard says in his memories, that in 30s kharkovian citizens and peasants spoke in pure Ukrainian language, had Ukrainian way of life and traditions. Such way of life retained in Panasovka, and beyond Kharkov, yet not to mention about Zaikivka, Zhuravlivka, Ivanivka and other slobodas.

Only in Moskalyovka, where Russians took up the residence, the Russian folk style of speaking was audible; at the city center, among ruling class and intelligentsia the Russian literary language dominated in general. At the end of 70s in XIX century Kharkov was russificated much more than its uyezd towns or neighbouring Poltava.

And all the same after 1897 inventory  25 % of Kharkov population acknowledged themselves as Ukraines (45092 in general, 23430 men and 21662 women), and 58 % acknowledged themselves as Russians. Even it may be supposed that really there were much more people of Ukrainian origin in Kharkov, becouse among its inhabitants 96 thousands were from Kharkovian province clans, and from Poltavian ones 5 thousands, from Kievan ones 4,5 thousands, from Katherinoslavian ones  2,5 thousands, from Podoliyan ones 1,5 thousands, in all  from Ukrainian provincial clans - 110 thousands, and though some of them possibly were Russians, but it seems, that many of Ukrainians just did not acknowledged themselves as such ones, because they didn't know, who they are in fact, and some others were pretending to be Russians for the convenience and advantage sake. It's interesting, that Ukrainian origin was declared mostly by representatives of lower society estates military men, railway and home employees, agricultural traders. Therefore we cannot say, that even at the beginning of century Khakov was completely "Russian" city by national structure of population.

 
     
   
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Ukrainian National Renaissance in Kharkov in XIX century.
 
 
     
       
  During all XIX century (when Russification of Kharkov and Ukraine was going on, when whole estates - noblemen, merchants, official men and intelligentsia in whole - moved away from Ukrainian people who repersented and represensts the most of population in Kharkovian villages)  some persons from intellectual and cultural milieu were noted who loved sincerely the Ukrainian people and were eager to come nearer to them, to familiarize with treasures of folk poetry, with their family life and language.

Some of such persons began to write in Ukraine and created new Ukrainian literature; others gathered the memorials and chronicles on Ukrainian history, worked on scientific history of Ukrainian language. Such sincere loving Ukraine led to creation of groups and circles of Ukrainian populists among Kharkovian cultured people; we watch them in Khakov during all XIX century. Groups and circles were creating among young people the disciples of  hihger and secondary scholls, especially of the university and among society (professors of Kharkov University took considerable part in that associations).

Old Kharkov. University Street

It should be mentioned, that Kharkov University generally was disposed to studying of Ukraine and gave many famous persons in this field. From the very beginning this institution understanded well that besides its general purpose (scientific research and teaching) it must persue as South Russia educational center a weighty object to work for benefit of that land where it was founded, for benefit of that people who made a great sacrifices to have the higher school in their native land, in Slobozhanshchina. It's necessary to remember that if Slobod Ukraine society all its estates in whole woudn't make a contributions for university organizing, in no circumstances Kharkov hadn't the university before than Kiev. It's also necessary to remember for ever about the contribution of Kharkov military residents 150 desyatins of landed estates on Sumskiy Shlyakh, which costs very much now (the clinics and laboratories of new university campus had been built there). And in the course of almost 200 years Kharkov University have done very much for Ukraine:  for studying of its territory and population. It may be desired only that such kind of university works should be extended now - at period of Ukrainian  independence. But let's return the XIX century.

Old Kharkov.Woman's Grammar School

As Tsebrikov told, the real Ukrainian among professors of Kharkov University was Komlyshynsky, who spoke Ukraine, and the same were all members of his family  father and sisters; their family life was Ukrainian also. One of the most famous Ukrainian poets - P.P.Gulak-Artemovsky - came from professors of Kharkov University, in 40s of XIX century he was a principle of this university.

P.P.Gulak-Artemovsky
He wrote in wonderful, vivid, folk Slobod-Ukrainian language; his fable "Lord and Dog", in which he criticized the serfdom, had got a great public resonance. Works of Gulak-Artemovsky awaked the love to Ukrainian people among society. Ukrainian and Russian literary critics (such as N.I.Kostomarov, P.O.Kulish, professor N.I.Petrov, academician N.P.Dashkevitch) rated highly Gulak-Artemovsky's works. The pattern of G.-A.  creative work is for example his poetical version of Goethe's "Fisher".
 
    
Kharkov gave also a famous Ukrainian writer Grigory Fedorovich Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, who belonged to well-known noble Cossack clan - the Kvitka's, from which many Slobod-Ukrainian colonels and commanders originated. Living in Osnova (one of Kharkov's suburbs of that time), Grigory Kvitka was a renowned public figure in Kharkov, but the most glory he merited as prose-writer. He occupied the first place among writers in olden times of Ukrainian literature.
Portrait of G.F.Kvitka-Osnovyanenko

Two volums of his stories were published in 1834 and were a great success, especially in Kharkov and Slobozhanshchina, because he outlined the life of Slobod Ukrainian peasants with great veracity and sincere liking, with subtle knowledge of their way of life, their language and history. Not only he liked Ukrainian folk language, but also he thought himself in this language and wrote his best works in it; all that which he wrote in Russian looked out as something pale and unimpressive. It isn't suprising, that his contemporaries, Kharkov writers of that time Gulak-Artemovsky, M. Kostomarov, A. Metlynsky and all young people considered him as father of Ukrainian prose.

..-'  ...1830
Professor Izm. Iv. Sreznevsky, who informed Pogodin about Kvitka's death  (in 1843) and his burial, which gathered not only all Kharkov dwellers, but also peasants of neighbouring villages, added to this, that Kvitka was the first national writer in Ukraine. Thanks to Kvitka even Kharkov city had got the significance as literary center not only among Ukrainian, but also among Russian writers; all of them either corresponded with Kvitka, or visited Kharkov to meet with him.

And  Kvitka played also a great role for circle of young people, who were interested in Ukrainian culture, because he was himself like living Ukrainian annalist, historian and ethnographer; and he had a great influence on scientists Kostomarov and Sreznevsky.

The famous historian M.I.Kostomarov graduated from Kharkov University; under influence of Ukrainiain ethnographic research and Kvitka personality he began to write  verses and dramas in Ukraine (end of 30s and beginning of 40s): dramas "Savva Chaly", "Pereyaslav night", Ukrainian ballads, translations of Byron's poetry, and his own poetry. Another graduate of Kharkov University A.L.Metlynsky became a professor of the same university and published also his own poetry with ethnographic editions (of songs)  "Dumy and something else". There were own author's verses, translations from German, Czech, Polish, Serbian and Slovakian. Metlynsky had a good command of Ukrainian, but hadn't enough  poetic talent. Motives of his poetry were sad, sometimes an influence of folk poetry could be watched; but there was sincere love of old Cossack life, high graves, steppe and father Dnieper in his works.

Old Kharkov.Modern School

Let's mention also Kharkov writers of that period as follows:  S.Pisarevsky Kharkovian protopop, who wrote under pen-name Shereperya, created opera "Kupala na Ivana", and beautyful popular song "I'm going across Neman", and "Note about Yanka Miriansky"; Petro Pisarevsky, who created the story "Stetsko Mozhebylytsya"; deacon P.Korenytsky as author of poem "Vechornytsi", L.Borovkovsky as author of verses and fable. At the same old times the literary poetic activity of very talented writer Ya.I.Shchogolev had started, at the end of life he published two big collections of his works: "Vorskla" and "Slobozhanshchina".

Shchogolev was born in Akhtyrka and graduated from Kharkov University, he began writing in Ukraine yet in 1843. Early Shchogolev's verses described old Cossack life on base of folk songs, but he didn't take songs in whole, and transformed their plots in pure poetic perls. Shchogolev worked after Shevchenko, but he didn't follow him he is rather original poet. In his new verses published in "Vorskla" we can see marvellous poetic language, developed on base of Slobod Ukrainian and Poltavian ones; besides of familiar plots little by little the social and public motives appeared in his poetry loving of simple, poor peasant people and sympathy to their sorrow. Such wonderful verses of him are    "Snow-storm", "Fire", "Horilka", "Shynok", "Deseas", "Weaver". Familiar motives can be watched in "Shepherd", and in "Verzadle" he drew three centuries of Ukrainian people and country life: free settlement of country and its wealth, hard serfdom and liberation, which, however, didn't bring good fortune.

The famous theatre actor, producer and dramatist M.L.Kropyvnytsky had close relation to Kharkov too; and he was burried there with a monument on his grave. In Kharkov his dramatic works were published. In these works we can watch a wonderful pure Ukrainian steppe (Khersonian) language, remarkable knowledge of Ukrainian folk life, vivid humour, true pictures of national home life and social relations.

And two Aleksandrovs father and son were closely connected with Kharkov. The father wrote good verses with humorous nuance, and the son V.S.Aleksandrov had created drama "Oh, don't go, Hrytsyu", operetta "I'm going across Neman", had published collection of songs, translated psalms in Ukrainian language ("Gentle tunes on saint motifs"), wrote good sentimental poetry. And Maslovych is worthy to be mentioned (the editor of the first Ukrainian journal "Kharkov Demokrit"),  and Manzhura too.

Not a few number of literary miscellanies had been published in Kharkov, i.e. collections with many Ukrainian works and articles about Ukraine. The first one was "Ukrainian almanac" in 1831: Shpyhotsky and L.Borovykovsky distributed Ukrainian verses there. In 1833 "Morning Star" in two books had been published, where we can see works of Kvitka ("Soldjer Portrait"), Gulak-Artemovsky, Hrebinka (fables and tranlation of Pushkin's "Poltava"), Kotliarevsky (fragment from "Eneida"). In 1841 Korsun's almanac "Sheaf" had been published, where all works were distributed only in Ukrainian; we can see there works of Jeremy Halka (Kostomarov), the Korenytskys, Pysarevsky, Petrenko, Korsun. In the beginning of 40s four volums of "Molodyk (New Moon)" by Betskoy had come out, where Ukrainian works of Hrebinka exclusively were published with a great number of articles and sources on history of Ukraine. In 1887  V.S.Aleksandrov's "Skladka (Assembled)" had appered. He had the luck to gather his almanac of works of great artistic meaning:  there we see works of Samiylenko, Bililovsky  translation of Schiller's "Bell" and very nice verses ("From Alps", "But let me live"), Grinchenko's and Hanna Barvinok's stories, treatments of Aleksandrov himself. This collection was the proof of growth degree of Ukrainian literature at the end of XIX century. Indeed, Ukrainian language had to be perfect enough, if the translation of Schiller's "Bell" was possible in it at that time. All these Ukrainian writer's works testified to that real Ukraine was keeping safe in Kharkov.

And together with writers many scientists and culture figures in Kharkov worked for Ukrainian Renaissance. A great deal in this sence has been done by professors of Kharkov University both in olden times and in XX century.

As to Ukrainian ethnography we must remember, that the first collection of Ukrainian songs by prince Tsertelev had come out in 1819. Then in 1831 1832 professor I.I.Sreznevsky (famous academician-Slavist afterwards) had published in Kharkov 2 parts of "Zaporozhian olden times" in 5 books, where many folk dumas, songs and historical research had been collected. Some of these materials were rejected later by critics, but in general this collection impressed a society very much and raised language, poetry and history of Ukrainian people in public opinion. Concerning Ukrainian language, Sreznevsky firstly in 1834 identified it as original Slavonic one and some years later only spoke against Ukrainian literature and culture.

Professor A.L.Metlynsky appeared as Ukrainian ethnographer. He gathered not only song texts but tunes too; as De-Poulet remembered, bandurists always were dear guests for him. In Kharkov he had published in 1848 "Southern Russian Collection", and in Kiev (1854) "Folk songs of South Russia" more then 400 songs have been represented there, whereas Maksymovich's collection had only 130 ones. A.L.Metlynsky sincerely loved Ukrainian language and considered it in series of the others Slav languages, and far later he considered it as the special "dialect of Russian language" only.

Portrait of M.I.Kostomarov
In Kharkov the famous historian M.I.Kostomarov began his activity and work on history of Ukrainian people and on Ukrainian literary memorials (we have told yet about his poetic editions under pseudonym Jeremy Halka). He had written and published in Kharkov the research work about Unia, which however had been cremated for "harmful tendency". Then M.I.Kostomarov was forced to write new work, for to receive master's degree on Russian history, "About historical importance of Russian folk poetry", in which he told principally about Ukrainian folk poetry. During Kharkov period M.I.Kostomarov wrote another works on Ukrainian history and history of Ukrainian literature.

And in the first half of XIX century many culture figures in Kharkov began to work on local history of Slobod Ukraine there were I.I.Kvitka, the uncle of writer G.F. Kvitka(Osnovyanenko), G.F.Kvitka himself, I.I.Sreznevsky and Kharkovian archbishop Phylaret. I.I.Kvitka wrote "Notes on Slobod regiments" (Kharkov, 1812), G.F.Kvitka "Historical-statistical description of Slobozhanshchina" (in "Kharkov Provincial Gazette", 1838), "On Slobod regiments" ("Contemporary", 1840), "The Ukrainians" ("Contemporary", 1841), "Kharkov town" ("Contemporary", 1840). It's necessary to mention about G.F.Kvitka's historical tale  "Founding of Kharkov". On base of sources I.I.Sreznevsky carried out although compact but very important research work "Historical representation of civil arrangement of Slobod Ukraine". It's interesting to remind there, that M.I.Kostomarov also restored on base of archive sources the history of Ostrogozhsk regiment, but tzar's gendarmes confiscated his manuscript, and it was lost in police-station.

A work of great significance for that time was "Historical-statistical description of Kharkov's eparchies" by Kharkovian archbishop Phylaret (Humylevsky) in 5 parts, where a great number of archive materials was collected not only on church, but on civil history of Slobozhanshchina. For this great work archbishop Phylaret must be considered as Nestor (Slav annalist) of Slobod-Ukrainian church history.

In the second half of XIX century we can watch appearance in Kharkov of considerable ethnographic collections of memorials of Ukrainian folk literatire and of research works on Ukrainian language, literature and history of Ukrainian people. In the first place we can designate a great linguist Ol.Af.Potebnia, the most renowned professor-Slavist of Kharkov University for all period of its existence (born in 1835, died in 1891). He graduated from Kharkov University and by his own words the Metlynsky's collection of songs was his first manual in Ukrainian language. His works on Ukrainian culture concern mainly to language and social anthropology: "Notes on Malo-Russian dialect", "Explanations of Malo-Russian and cognate folk songs" (2 volums), critical notices on publication of Halychina songs by Yak.Holovatsky, on P.Zhytetsky research work about sound history of Malo-Russian language, etc. His knowledge of Ukrainian language was quite perfect and he even translated himself the part of Homer's "Odyssey" in verses, published Gulak-Artemovsky's poetry, G.F.Kvitka's stories, Manzhura's verses. He was adherent of the most broad development of all nations and their languages, including Ukrainian people. In this respect his views on undoubted damage of Russification and violent propagation of Polish in Ukraine have a great importance even today.

One of Potebnia followers was professor M.F.Sumtsov (born in 1854), who had a great number of serious works on history of ancient Ukrainian literature and Ukrainin ethnography. During almost 40 years professor D.I.Bagaliy worked in Kharkov, he was engaged in history and archaeology of Ukraine, especially of Left-Shore region, and more ecpecially of Slobod Ukraine. Professor A.S.Lebedev and protoiyerey Myk.Lashchenko worked on history of local church, and professor Y.K.Redin - on history of local art; it's interesting that Lebedev and Redin weren't Ukrainian themselves, but worked very diligently for Ukraine weal.

The warm words must be said about the Efimenkos; he - Petro Savych - was a Ukrainian, but his wife Aleksandra Yakovlevna - wasn't a Ukrainian, what didn't hamper her to write valuable works on history and law in Ukraine, moreover almost all her works Aleksandra Yakovlevna wrote just in Kharkov. It's necessary to refer here to spontaneous research works of professor P.Lavrovsky (about Ukrainian language), and professor Zelenogorsky (about Skovoroda).

And professors of another university departmetnts also concerned Ukraine in their research works, for example, Cherniayev, Borysiak, Gurov (Natural Science Department) and M.O.Maksimeyko (Faculty of Law). And a great deal had been done for understanding of nature, history, ethnography of Ukraine by university scientific societies namely by Historical-Philological Society and Natural Science Society. Within the frame of Historical-Philological Society historical archives had been founded, where a great number of archiv sources on Left Shore and Slobod Ukraine had been collected by P.S.Efimenko and D.I.Bagaliy; many scientists worked there who developed Ukrainian history. Among them we can mark I.V.Telychenko, M.M.Plokhynsky and very talented D.P.Miller especially. This society publised many materials on history and ethnography of Ukraine.

In 1902 Archaeological Congress was arranged in Kharkov. Professor E.K.Redin worked most of all for this. As congress result four Ukrainian museums had appeared: 1) Archaeological and Historcal Department at Antiques Museum of Kharkov University, 2) Church Department of Slobod Ukraine Antiquity at the same museum, 3) Eparchial Museum of Church Slobod-Ukrainian Antiquity, 4) Ethnogaphic Museum of Slobozhanshchina at Kharkov University; there were professor O.M.Krasnov and O.P.Radakova who made an important contribution to its organizing. Ukrainian Department had been created at Kharkov Book Chamber. Publishing Committee of Kharkov Literacy Association published Ukrainian books also while D.I.Bagaliy was at the head of it (more than one million books!). For several years Ukrainian Kvitka's Society existed in Kharkov, and then "Prosvita (Enlightenment)" was founded in the beginning of century.

As for Ukrainian art in Kharkov, in addition to Church Department of university museum and Eparchial Museum of Church Slobod-Ukrainian Antiquity, the painting collection of famous artist Serhiy Ivanovuch Vasylkivsky had been gathered in Kharkov City Museum, where old Ukrainian churches were painted in oils, and the portrait collection of famous persons in Slobozhanshchina. There was Ukrainian Antiquity Department at University Art Museum, and paintings of some Ukrainian artists were collected also, for example, of D.I.Bezperchy and other young artists of that time. Many Ukrainian landscapes were represented by artists Tkachenko and Levchenko. Slobozhanshchina (namely Chuguyev town) gave a great artist I.Y.Repin to the world. S.I.Vasylkivsky left the wonderful heritage for native Slobozhanshchina - all his colossal collection of arts - for to found Slobozhanshchina Museum on this base.

As for Ukrainian theatre, it was in Kharkov, although not as constant stage, for a long time. In former times very talented Ukrainian actor Solenic shined on its scene, he was burried in Kharkov graveyard with the monument and Ukrainian legend on it. In Kharkov glorious Russian artist Shchepkin played a part in "Moskal Charivnyk (Moscovite the Wizard)", but the most great deal had been made for Ukrainian Renaissance among Kharkovians by the father of new Ukrainian theatre Marko Lukych Kropyvnytsky, and by another coryphaeus of Ukrainian stage M.K.Zankovetska, Sadovsky, Zatyrkevych...

During all XIX century there were several circles of Ukrainian youth in Kharkov, there were some groups of city-dwellers also, such as D.P.Pilchikov, who took part even in Cyryl-and-Mephody brotherhood, and then in founding of T.G.Shevchenko Association in Lwov; or O.L.Shymaniv, who wrote interesting research work on former loan land-ownership in Slobozhanshchina. Apropos let's remember that D.P.Pilchikov's son, outstanding physicist N.D.Pilchikkov also made a great deal for native land not only as natural scientist but as Ukrainian patriot, in particular, he supported Mendeleyev's organizing of All-Russian T.G.Shevchenkko Society for Ukraine studying in St.Petersburg.

Let's remember there our renowned fellow-countryman M.I.Dragomirov, who always spoke Ukrainian while visiting of native country and loved sincerely Ukraine and Ukrainian way of life. In period when D.I.Bagaliy was a principal of Kharkov University there was large student's Ukrainian community, from which many young figures of Ukrainian revival in Kharkov came out in the beginning of  century and in years of revolution.

Let's finish with the testament of D.I.Bagaliy, with the final lines of his fundamental work "History of Slobod Ukraine":

 
  "Ukrainian revival will extend in Kharkov as well as in other towns of Ukraine. Kharkov cannot dissociate itself now from Ukrainian peasant's life in Slobozhanshchina and another parts of our mother Ukraine. This revival (but not Ukrainization) have to be free, without any compulsion. Let all nations live freely in Ukraine; let any of them live in its own way, starting with our native brothers Russians and Byelorussians, because national base is necessary for each of them. And let Ukrainian culture extend among Ukrainians, and let children of Ukraine care and trouble about it - all who love their people and wish them well - , because aliens won't trouble. Let all nations have a free life in Ukraine, but new Ukrainian settlers must remember that it's impossible to humble in their native land (as it was in former times) that Ukrainian people, who populated this land, defenced it from enemies and pour their labour sweat on it for a long time. And we all, the children of Ukraine, will remember a great humane testament of unforgettable Kobsar:

 

 
  To industrious minds, to industrious hands,  ...  
Don't wait, plough your lands,    
                          think and sow,  
                                                  and the crop you will mow.
   

It means that our nation itself in alliance with its intellectuals must work for the nation's common weal."

 
     
 
     
   
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